# Creates a different molarity, different concentration solutions

## Amount of substance concentration

The **Amount of substance concentration** (Formula symbol: *c*) or **Molarity** (outdated term) is the quotient of the amount of substance (*n*) of a solute X and the volume (*V.*) of the solution.^{[1]} If the molar mass is known, the mass concentration or - with the help of the Avogadro constant (see also Loschmidt number) - the particle number concentration can be calculated from the molar concentration.

### history

It used to be the symbol *M.* used for the unit of measurement mole per liter and also used together with SI prefixes; however, this notation is not compatible with the International System of Units (SI). According to the IUPAC recommendation, only the substance concentration in English should be included *concentration* are designated.^{[2]}

### Notation

The molar concentration can be given in the unit mole per liter:

- $ c_X = \ frac {n_X} {V} \ qquad [c_X] = 1 \ frac {\ rm mol} {\ rm l} $

With a 2.5 molar (outdated representation also: 2.5 M) aqueous sulfuric acid is meant a solution which contains 2.5 mol sulfuric acid molecules per liter at a certain temperature; this is based on the usual unit mol / l;

### Sample calculations

In a 0.8 molar (0.8 M) sulfuric acid solution (molar mass of sulfuric acid: 98.08 g / mol) there are 0.8 mol of H per liter of solution_{2}SO_{4} contain. The corresponding mass at H_{2}SO_{4} for a volume *V.* = 3 liters of such sulfuric acid is:

- $ m_ {H_2 SO_4} = c_ {H_2 SO_4} \ cdot M_ {H_2 SO_4} \ cdot V = 0 {,} 8 \, \ frac {\ mbox {mol}} {\ mbox {l}} \ cdot 98 { ,} 08 \, \ frac {\ mbox {g}} {\ mbox {mol}} \ cdot 3 {,} 0 \, {\ mbox {l}} = 235 {,} 392 \, {\ mbox {g }} $

The number of particles*N* a 3 millimolar (3 mM) solution of cane sugar in water for one volume of solution *V.* = 2 cubic centimeters, where *N*_{A.} (Avogadro's constant) indicates the number of particles per mole is:

- $ N_ {C_ {12} H_ {22} O_ {11}} = c_ {C_ {12} H_ {22} O_ {11}} \ cdot V \ cdot N_A = 0 {,} 003 \, \ mathrm {\ frac {mol} {dm ^ 3}} \ times 0 {,} 002 \, \ mathrm {dm ^ 3} \ times 6 {,} 022 \ times 10 ^ {23} \, \ mathrm {mol ^ {- 1 }} = 3 {,} 6132 \ cdot \ mathrm {10 ^ {18}} $

### See also

### Individual evidence

- ↑
*Entry: amount concentration*. In:*IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology (the “Gold Book”)*. doi: 10.1351 / goldbook.A00295. - ↑ IUPAC: Abbreviated list of quantities, units and symbols in physical chemistry. By K. H. Homann. Section 4.3, accessed January 13, 2013.

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