How are psychrometry used in climatology

Climate adaptive design methodology

Transcript

1 Climate-adaptive design methodology An investigation of the interaction between climate data, climate-friendly design methods and the adaptive comfort model. Approved dissertation XXXX to obtain the academic degree of Doctor of Engineer - Dr. Ing. - HafenCity University Hamburg Submitted by: M.A Gustavo Linhares de Siqueira Doctoral Committee: Chair: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Frank Wellershoff Reviewer: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Udo Dietrich Reviewer: Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Wolfgang Willkomm Date of submission: Day of the oral examination: Hamburg 15

2 1. Introduction 1.1. Definition 1.2. Goal 1.3. Structure and method Page Climate and traditional architecture 2.1. Climate 2.2. Climate classification 2.3. Traditional architecture 2.4. critical consideration 2.5. Examples of climate-friendly architecture 3.1. Thermodynamic basis Dry temperature Absolute air humidity Saturation point Relative air humidity Wet temperature Enthalpy (or heat content) Density and volume 3.2. Psychrometry Sensitive heating or cooling Cooling by evaporation or adiabatic cooling Heating and humidification or cooling and dehumidification 3.3. Climate-friendly architecture Olgyay Mahoney Givoni Eproklid 3.4. Critical Analysis 3.5. Suggestions for further development

3 4. Thermal comfort and adaptive theory 4.1. Heat balance models Two nodes Fanger 4.2. Adaptive Theory Humphreys Auliciems ASHRAE CEN Adaptive Theory 4.3. Critical Analysis Page Evaluation Method 5.1. Visual analysis list scatter diagram scatter diagram trivariate heat map box plot 5.2. Compensation curve: mean comfort temperature 5.3. The sliding comfort area 5.4. Result visualizations Correlation diagram Time series Comfort difference Descending order 5.5. Evaluation of the proposed evaluation methods Results 6.1. Tree diagram 6.2. Case study 7. Conclusion 8. Bibliography and picture credits 9. Appendix

4 Abstract Passive and low-energy design methods are wide spread and remain constant since many decades, thus the comfort demands and the tools to evaluate design have changed. On the one hand, given the availability of hour-step climate data and the many enhancements in the field of the adaptive comfort theory, it is possible to dynamically simulate the design performance based on user s expectations towards the indoor environment. On the other hand a set of basic design parameters are precondition to start design process and precede any evaluations. This dissertation investigates the missing link between vernacular architecture, climate responsive design and adaptive comfort theory as an evaluation tool for a recursive and comparative design methodology. A multi-staged method is proposed, wherein both design parameters and evaluation methods are directly connected to main climate groups. Summary Climate-friendly design methods are very widespread, but have hardly changed in the last few decades, although comfort requirements and their evaluation methods have developed significantly. The many new findings in the area of ​​adaptive comfort theory combined with the general availability of climate data in hourly steps contributed to the development of sophisticated evaluation methods based on dynamic simulations. However, these evaluations presuppose the pre-selection of basic design parameters that could be provided by the climate-friendly design methods. This dissertation establishes this missing connection between traditional architecture, climate-friendly design methods and adaptive comfort theory, and proposes a scientifically founded and planner-oriented design methodology. The methodology proposed in this thesis is based on a multi-level structure that begins with the division into climate groups. Parameters tailored to the respective climate group support the planner in the creation of design approaches. These can be assessed using an evaluation method developed in-house, which is also tailored to the climate group. This creates the possibility of optimizing the design approaches in order to develop a climate-adapted design.

5 For Doris for your help, for your support, for your patience. without them this work would not have been possible

6 1. Introduction We feel our way forward, we experiment, we try things out. Nobody knows what the environment is capable of Bruno Latour 1.1 Definition: what is climate-adaptive design methodology? The main concept of the original title of this dissertation was that of climate-adaptive architecture. However, in the course of the work it turned out that this name aroused the wrong expectations, namely to create a universal architectural solution that could adapt to all climatic conditions. Therefore, the title was changed to climate-adaptive design methodology, which means a method that is characterized by a careful examination of the specific climate characteristics of a location and takes into account the needs of people in relation to the climate. The climate-adaptive design methodology is an attempt to develop a method that extends the climate-friendly methods with the latest findings from adaptive comfort theory (adaptive comfort models) and, conversely, adapts the adaptive comfort models to the needs of climate-friendly methods. The need for adaptability of the building can be seen on different levels. First, there are general climatic characteristics that characterize a location, that influence the architecture in such a way that it can be clearly distinguished from that in other locations. Second, there are the seasons and the changes they cause within the same location. In addition, even within a day, different situations arise that completely change the tasks of a building. Since climate is a dynamic process, a climate-adaptive design method should also be dynamic and adaptable. The required intensity of this dynamic is in turn determined by the specific situation of the respective location. For some time now, the work of architects has no longer been limited to a region, but has been expanded to an international level. The globalization of the profession is exciting, but at the same time a challenge. The outside influence is not necessarily a new phenomenon and in many cases has led to an enrichment of the architecture (Egyptian-Roman-Greek, Arabic-Iberian, Iberian-American ...). But the speed at which this exchange occurs in the present makes the possibility of a quicker overview of completely unknown locations necessary. A few years ago, this problem was solved by using technical building equipment. The full air-conditioning of buildings, apart from the health problems it caused, became a thing of the past after the first oil crises in the 1970s and 1

7 the constantly rising energy costs and the scarcity of resources that followed. The reports of the Intergovernametal Panel on Climate Change (Bernstein et al, 07) presented scenarios of climate change: there are generally recognized, effective changes that are the result of human interaction with the environment in the past. These changes are inevitable. There are also forecast scenarios of what consequences current actions will cause and ways in which they can be mitigated. The development of a climate-adaptive architecture should help to reduce the human contribution to global warming by saving resources and reducing emissions. This architecture should also respond to the inevitable new phenomena (e.g. the waves of overheating in the temperate zone, floods in the tropical area, etc.). These events represent an ethical task of architecture. The greatest advantage of climate-adaptive architecture is: the proposed changes it develops are effective in the early planning phases, namely already on the conceptual level, and are therefore much less complex to implement than the development of technical building equipment. 1.2 Goal The goal of the work is the development of a scientifically founded design method, an analytical decision aid during the design process, in which the adaptability of humans to climatic phenomena functions as an important basis for architectural planning. The adaptation of people, i.e. adaptivity, is the subject of adaptive comfort theory. The design method developed here is intended for the planning of passive and low energy architecture, with the focus on residential construction. The climate-adaptive architecture is based on the existing models for climate-friendly architecture. In English, climate-friendly architecture means climate responsive design (or design with climate). These terms, design (equated with draft in English) and climate, remain as a basic feature of this work. The decisive difference to existing models lies in their scope. On the one hand, most of the design methods for climate-friendly architecture stem from a time when the availability of climate data was very limited; they are therefore limited to monthly mean values. Nowadays, climate data in hourly steps as TRY are very common and freely available for the whole world (e.g. Weather Data Energyplus, Meteonorm). The proposed method is intended to respond to this increase in information. On the other hand, the new findings in the area of ​​thermal comfort should be taken into account and incorporated into the planning of buildings. 2

8 1.3 Structure and method: how is the climate-adaptive design methodology achieved? The work is divided into seven chapters, the first being an introduction and the last being a conclusion. The other chapters are each divided into three sections. The first part is a general explanation of the content, the second is the actual research and finally a critical examination follows. The only exception is chapter six, which, due to its nature as a presentation of the results, does not contain any critical consideration. Chapters two to four are basic research and the method used is mainly based on specialist literature research. Chapter five is based on the evaluation of a worldwide database of field research. This evaluation is carried out both by statistical calculations with standard software z. B. Excel, as well as with the help of self-written scripts (processing) for data visualization. The goal is the development of an evaluation method based on an algorithm as well as an intuitive representation of the results of thermal simulations. Chapter six presents the results of the work in the form of a design method. In addition, application examples are given and thermal simulations with Primero, a software for thermal simulations developed at HafenCity University Hamburg, are carried out and evaluated using the algorithms developed in Chapter five. 3

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10 2. Climate and traditional architecture This chapter is an introduction to the concepts of climate and the relationship between climate and architecture. It presents the fundamentals that contribute to the scientific handling of the indoor climate and also a selection of methods that use these fundamentals. 2.1 Climate The sun, the earth's atmosphere and the earth itself play a role in the climate. The sun supplies the earth with energy through radiation. This reaches the earth's surface through the atmosphere, whereby the radiation is filtered or absorbed. In the layer of the atmosphere closest to the earth's surface, the troposphere, the climatic phenomena that are visible to humans occur. (Mayers Taschenlexikon, 1998) Climatic factors The combination of the elliptical movement of the earth's orbit and the inclination of the earth's axis result in the seasons, which differ in the northern hemisphere from the southern hemisphere. The difference between day and night arises from the earth's rotation. The spherical shape of the earth means that the sun's rays in the areas near the equator hit the earth's surface almost perpendicularly, while the areas closer to the poles are irradiated at a flat angle. Thus, the geographical latitude is an important climate factor. Then there is the atmospheric circulation, the ocean currents and the water cycle. They result, among other things, in the different climatic characteristics of coasts and inland areas. The formation of mountains and valleys and the associated altitude are another important factor that shapes the climate of a location. Climate elements In order to record the climate of a location, meteorological measurements are carried out at weather stations and registered in databases. These measurements are divided into measurement units called climate elements. The most important climate elements are: temperature (C), air pressure (Pa), wind direction (), wind speed (m / s), precipitation (mm), air humidity (%), cloudiness (%) and duration of sunshine (h). The long-term observation of these elements (usually a period of 10 to 30 years) and the statistical evaluation of the measurements that reflect these processes (mean values ​​as well as deviations) lead to a stable recording of the climate of a location. 5

11 Since the weather stations are usually not located in urban areas, but rather in isolated locations such as e.g. Airports, the evaluated data mostly reflect the macroclimatic characteristics very well. However, the work of architects is mostly limited to a dense urban fabric that has a differentiated microclimate. These microclimatic characteristics of the location to be examined are very specific and therefore cannot be considered in their full scope in the present work. For every construction task, it must be taken into account whether there are barriers in the immediate vicinity of the design area that could change the main wind direction and the wind speed, whether the object to be planned will be in such a dense context that phenomena such as heat islands arise, or direct sunlight is blocked, etc. 2.2 Climate classification: Köppen-Geiger In order to gain a general understanding of climate, climate classifications are very practical. They were already known in the time of the ancient Greeks. Pythagoras assumed a spherical earth and thus explained the distribution of heat on its surface. Parmenides, his pupil, supplemented this idea with a climate classification divided into five zones: one warm, two temperate and two cold zones. These concepts have been revised and supplemented over the centuries, and they have served as the basis for climate classification models to the present day (Sanderson, 1999). In the 19th century, the botanist Alphonse de Candolle developed a system for classifying plants based on the ancient Greek climate classification (Sanderson, 1999). He divided the plant species into five groups and designated them with letters: A for the plants from warm climates, B for those from the dry climates, C for the plants from the temperate climates, D and E for the species from the cold and polar climates (Essenwanger, 01). In 1900, the German scientist Wladimir Köppen produced the first effective classification of the world's climates, which is still the most widely used today, more than a hundred years later (Sanderson, 1999). As a basis for his work, he used his knowledge of plant physiology. As with Candolle, its classification is divided into five major groups and named with letters. The use of observation of the spread of plant species as a criterion for a climate classification was unavoidable at the time, as only a very limited amount of climate data was available (Peel et al, 07). In 1936 the Köppen classification was revised and in 1961 a major revision by the German meteorologist Rudolf Geiger, and since then it has been named after the two authors. Their subdivision of the climate takes place in three levels. The first main level determines the climatic zone and relates to the monthly mean values ​​of the temperature. The second level determines the type of climate and is based on the amount of precipitation. The third and last level is represented by the climate subtypes, and stands for the differentiation of summer and winter conditions. (see Fig. 2.1 and 2.2) 6

12 temperature in C MAT = mean. Annual temp .; T hm = temp. hottest month; T km = temp. coldest month; T mon10 = number of months> 10 C precipitation in mm MAN = mean. Year N .; N tm = N. driest months; N ts = N. dry. Months of summer; N tw = N. dry. Months of winter; N fs = N. wettest month summer; N fw = N.

13 2.3 Traditional architecture The term vernacular architecture, also known as traditional construction, is very extensive and is used very differently. Here it stands for a building culture that has developed and rooted in a certain place and can be described as typical of it. The three special features of vernacular architecture are: use of local resources, adaptation to climatic conditions, high degree of social identification. The development of a constructive tradition typical for an area takes place over long periods of time and takes place empirically, if not exclusively, then primarily: through trial and error.The results of this learning process are transferred to constructive techniques and passed on over generations. The special leitmotif is protection against unfavorable weather conditions. The result is the development of building typologies that react to the climatic conditions of the location. There are numerous manifestations that illustrate this adjustment process and are shown here in images. A good example from the humid and warm tropics, represented by the A zone in the Köppen-Geiger classification, are the Iban from the Dyak Lake area in Malaysia (Fig.2.4). It is an elevated building typology that makes optimal use of air movement. Another distinctive characteristic of this typology are the large roof overhangs, which protect the interior from direct sunlight and repel heavy rain. The buildings are made of wood or bamboo and clad with leaves, two lightweight materials that prevent unwanted storage of the daytime heat. The Yemeni house (see Fig. 2.6) is a typical representative of the hot, dry area, which is classified in the B zone of the Köppen-Geiger classification. Clay (bricks) is a heavy material with great storage capacity, so it is well suited when there are large daily fluctuations in temperature, which is typical for arid regions. In addition, the rooms of this building typology are built compactly and with small window openings in order to avoid a large heat exchange between inside and outside. From the temperate area, at Köppen-Geiger the C zone, the trulli in southern Italy (see Fig. 2.8) and the half-timbered houses (see Fig. 2.10) in northern Europe are examples. Both have to adapt to the seasonal variations in climatic conditions. In winter, the building's job is to store the warmth of the day and avoid rapid cooling during the night. In summer there should be protection against overheating during the day and the cooler night temperatures should be exploited. The result is a compact design with heavy materials and a well-insulated outer shell, medium-sized window openings and sun protection devices for the summer. Finally, the wooden structures from North America - the log cabins and the alpine architecture (see Fig. 2.11) - are representative of the cold region. In this area, marked with D and E in the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, the focus is on maintaining the internal temperature, which is why wood, a material with good insulation properties, is used. The window openings tend to be built small and 8

14 When orientating the house, care is taken to ensure that the solar radiation is optimally used. Vernacular architecture was already thematized by Wright, Aalto and in the later work of Corbusier (Frampton, 1980), but only as a form of expression. A deeper examination of the topic can be found in the works of Fathy (1987) and in the research activities of Rudofsky (1989) and Oliver (1987). 2.4 Critical considerations The observation of long-established and extensively tested building cultures in connection with the general climate characteristics allows conclusions to be drawn as to how a building strategy suitable for a specific location can be achieved with reduced resources. This observation forms the basis for successful planning in dealing with the climate. These basic findings can, however, be refined by more precise analysis methods, which among other things helps to meet the increased demands for comfort in contemporary lifestyle. These methods are introduced and deepened in the following chapters. 9

15 Fig. Comparison between two different urban planning typologies. Marrakech is shown on the left and Zanzibar on the right. In Marrakech there is a very efficient system of compact inner courtyards and narrow streets for a hot, dry climate. A small proportion of the surface area of ​​the building is exposed to solar radiation, so that the masses, which have cooled down at night, remain relatively cool during the day. In Zanzibar, on the other hand, the relaxed structure favors increased air circulation between the buildings, which is appropriate for a warm, humid climate. 10

16 Fig. Similar climate, similar typologies. The scheme and the photo above on the left show a lightweight construction made of bamboo in Malaysia, the Iban at Lake Dyak. Next to it a house in Colombia. Both typologies are well adapted for a warm, humid climate. The roofs are covered with leaves and thus protect against solar radiation thanks to their insulating properties. The slope of the roof and v. a. the elevation of the houses suggests increased rainfall. 11

17 Fig Typologies from a settlement in the humid, warm climate of Cameroon. Strong, insulated and sloping roofs provide protection against solar radiation and heavy rain. The detailed photo shows a wind-permeable construction. 12th

18 Fig. Different typologies of dry and hot climates. On the left a Berber settlement in Tunisia and on the right a house in Yemen. The constructive systems differ, but serve the same purpose: to form a mass capable of storing heat. The window openings are small and the structures are very compact. Bottom left the principle of the Nubian vault and on the right a system section of the Yemeni house. 13th

19 Fig. Different typologies of cooling towers in hot, dry climates. Above left a house in Pakistan, in the middle a house in Oman. Both examples consist of compact dimensions and heavy materials. The air exchange is ensured by the tower and avoids solar radiation through window openings. In Oman, these towers are often provided with water tanks to enable evaporative cooling. The scheme shows the Badgir (traditional house typology in Baghdad). 14th

20 Fig. The trulli are a type of construction in southern Italy, a transition area between the temperate climatic zone and the hot and dry zone. The buildings are very compact and the white-painted facades offer protection against the heat, as they reflect the sunlight. 15th

21 fig an Irish farmhouse. Compact design with heavy materials and a heavily insulated roof. 16

22 Fig half-timbered houses as typologies of the temperate climatic zones. The picture above is from southern Germany and the schematic from a British house in Devon. The steeply sloping roof shape indicates high amounts of precipitation (also in the form of snow). The walls consist of a combination of wood (insulation) and bricks (storage mass). The window openings are noticeably small. 17th

23 Fig an example from the cold area. A house in Törbel, Switzerland. The foundation is made of stone, but the walls are made of wood (strong insulation properties). The window openings are oriented towards the sunny side. 18th

24 proposed summary of the characteristics of vernacular architecture: Climate group warm and humid A Characteristics: high relative humidity, high amounts of precipitation, low temperature fluctuations Strategy: Orientation: main wind direction, low depth of the room Protection from you. Solar radiation light construction permanent ventilation strongly insulated roof Example: Rumah Adat, Indonesia Kampung, Malaysia Malocca, Colombia hot dry B low relative humidity low rainfall high temperature fluctuations high solar radiation intensity compact construction methods small facade openings protection from you. Solar radiation high storage capacity Night ventilation Example: Clay architecture of the Dogon bricks houses, Yemen Berber settlement, Tunisia Moderate C average relative humidity average amount of precipitation average temp. year mean temperature threshold Day medium solar radiation intensity winter: compact construction methods strongly insulated outer shell high storage dimensions summer: sun protection devices night ventilation example: half-timbered houses, Germany Truli, Italy cold D + E low temperatures low solar radiation intensity strongly insulated outer shell window opening to the sunny side example: log cabin in North America Alpenhäuser, Törbel 19

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26 3. Climate-friendly architecture This chapter begins with an introduction to the fundamentals of the thermodynamic processes that influence the indoor climate. With their help, passive indoor air conditioning can be made possible. Then the knowledge gained is related to the scientifically founded design methods for climate-friendly architecture based on various comfort models. 3.1 Thermodynamic basis The condition of the indoor climate is determined by thermodynamic factors. In this context, the ratio of gas-steam mixtures or the mixture of dry air and water vapor plays a major role. Psychrometry is the branch of research that studies both the properties and behavior of these mixtures, as well as their practical applications. (Auliciems & Szokolay, 07). Psychrometry is strongly influenced by two researchers: Carrier and Mollier. Each one has a psychrometric chart. Psychrometric diagrams are usually represented on a two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, with the humidity being represented on one main axis (either the X-axis abscissa or the Y-axis ordinate) and the drying temperature on the other. On the Mollier diagram, the absolute humidity is on the abscissa and the drying temperature is on the ordinate. The assignment of the axes is reversed on the carrier diagram, apart from that, both diagrams are analogous. The execution of the Mollier diagram (also called the h, x diagram) is preferred in Europe, especially in Northern Europe and Russia. On the other hand, thanks to its further development by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the carrier diagram has asserted itself worldwide and should be presented here in more detail. The properties and behavior of dry air in relation to air humidity change when the barometric air pressure changes, which is why the representation of the diagram is only valid for a certain altitude. The most important state variables shown in the psychrometric diagram (psycrometric chart) are: Dry temperature Absolute air humidity Saturation point Relative air humidity Wet temperature Enthalpy (or heat content) Density and volume 21

27 3.1.1 Dry bulb temperature, x-axis The dry bulb temperature (DBT) is usually simply referred to as the air temperature. It is measured by a conventional thermometer with a dry vessel. Their values ​​are given in either C or K. In the psychrometric chart (ASHRAE), the dry temperature is represented by isotherms, which at 50 C run orthogonally to the abscissa and are increasingly inclined as the temperature drops. (German weather service) (see Fig.3.1) Absolute humidity, y-axis The absolute humidity (Absolute humidity AH), absolute humidity or water content (Moisture Content, Moisture Ratio) is the quantity of state that determines the content of water vapor in a certain air mass reproduces. The specialty of the AH is that it is independent of the air temperature. The AH is usually given in grams of water vapor per kilogram of dry air (g / kg), but it can also be expressed in kg / kg or also in kg / m3. (German weather service) (see Fig. 3.2) Saturation point and saturation curve At any temperature, the air only has a certain capacity for absorbing water vapor. When the air reaches its maximum humidity level, this is called its saturation point. If you mark and connect the saturation points at each temperature on the psychrometric diagram, you get a curve: the saturation curve. This corresponds to a relative humidity of 100%. (German weather service) (see Fig.3.3) 22

28 DBT C 50 Fig Structure of the psychrometric diagram: Drying temperature DBT 30 AH - g / kg Fig Structure of the psychrometric diagram: Absolute humidity AH AH g / kg 25 Saturation curve DBT C 00 Fig Structure of the psychrometric diagram: Saturation curve 23

29 3.1.4 Relative humidity Relative humidity (RH) is the best-known humidity parameter. It expresses the amount of water vapor contained in the air in relation to the maximum possible amount of water vapor to be absorbed (saturation point). Their values ​​are given in percent and, unlike the AH, the RH is dependent on the air temperature. As the air temperature rises, so does their water absorption capacity. (Siemens Building Technologies) (see Fig. 3.4) Wet bulb temperature or wet bulb temperature (WBT) is measured using a wet bulb thermometer, which is part of the psychrometer. The difference between the dry and wet thermometer is that the vessel of the wet thermometer is covered with a stocking that is moistened during the measurement process. As will be explained later, the drying temperature can be lowered by increasing the humidity (s). The humid temperature helps to estimate this decrease in advance. In the psychrometric diagram, the wet bulb temperature is represented in C by inclined isotherms. (German Weather Service) (see Fig. 3.5) Enthalpy Heat content or enthalpy (enthalpy) describes the amount of energy contained in the air that causes a change within a thermodynamic system at constant pressure. Examples include raising and lowering the air temperature, as well as humidifying and dehumidifying the air. The enthalpy is shown with inclined lines almost parallel to the WBT and is given in kj / kg dry air. (Auliciems & Szokolay, 07) (see Fig.3.6) 24

30 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% RH 40% 30%% 10% Fig. Structure of the psychrometric diagram: Relative humidity RH 30 C WBT 25 C WBT C WBT 00 C WBT 05 C WBT 10 C WBT 15 C WBT Fig Structure of the psychrometric diagram: Wet temperature WBT KJ / Kg enthalpy Fig Structure of the psychrometric diagram: Enthalpy 25

31 3.1.7 Density and specific volume The density describes the ratio of mass to volume of a substance. The unit of density is therefore kg / m³. The specific volume is the reciprocal of the density and is expressed in m3 / kg. (See Fig. 3.7) (Fig. 3.8 Overall view) 3.2 Psychrometry Every change in the indoor climate can be shown on the psychrometric diagram. This makes it possible, for example, to calculate the energy consumption of any active air conditioning measure. The intention of the climate-adaptive design methodology is, in the broadest sense, to reduce the need for active air conditioning through good planning and, if possible, to avoid it. However, a brief introduction is given. There are four possible operations: cooling, heating, humidifying and dehumidifying, which can also be used in combination. The most important of these psychrometric processes are: Sensitive heating or cooling Cooling by evaporation or adiabatic cooling Heating and humidification Cooling and dehumidification 26

32, 94 0.92 0.90 0.88 0.86 m³ / kg dry air 0.84 0.82 0.80 0.78 Fig. Structure of the psychrometric diagram: specific volume% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50 % RH 40% AH g / kg% C WBT 60 KJ / Kg enthalpy 0,, 90% 15 0,, 86 m³ / kg dry air 30 0.84 25 C WBT 10 0.82 10% 0,, 78 00 C WBT 05 C WBT 10 C WBT 15 C WBT DBT CC WBT 00 Fig. Overall representation of the psychrometric diagram 27

33 3.2.1 Sensitive heating or cooling Sensitive heating or cooling takes place without changing the absolute humidity. With a given volume of air, the enthalpy increases with the sensitive heating and the RH decreases, and with the sensitive cooling the enthalpy shrinks and the RH increases. This process is represented on a psychrometric diagram on an AH isoline. (Siemens Buildingtechnologies) With a temperature change of K shown in the diagram, you can read on the enthalpy lines that around 10 KJ / kg of air must be used. This amount can now be transferred to the actual air volume of the room to be cooled or heated and thus the energy requirement can be calculated in advance. (see Fig. 3.9) Heating and humidification or cooling and dehumidifying Heating and humidifying and cooling and dehumidifying (cooling and dehumidifying) are two psychrometric processes with similar results, but different sequences. They consist of the simultaneous change in the drying temperature and the moisture content of the air. If, during cooling, the temperature drops so far that the dew point is reached, liquid water is separated from the system. The AH drops. In the diagram you can see that, for example, the cooling from 25 to about 14 C would require an energy of about 24 KJ / kg air. Since warmer air can absorb more water into the system than cold air, the relative humidity value drops when heating. In order to keep it constant, liquid must be introduced into the system. About 24 KJ / kg of air would also have to be used for this process. (see Fig. 3.10) Cooling through evaporation Cooling through evaporation (evaporative cooling) is an adiabatic process, which means that for the entire calculation at the end of the process neither heat loss nor heat gain takes place. Liquid is introduced into a given volume of air. The process works like the cooling of the skin surface through the evaporation of sweat. When the physical state changes from liquid water to water vapor (liquid gaseous), heat is required, which is obtained from the environment. The remaining water and the surrounding air cool down. This process can be traced graphically on the WBT lines.It becomes clear here that hardly any energy has to be introduced into the system for this process. (see Fig.3.11) 28

34% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% RH 40% AH g / kg% KJ / Kg enthalpy 50% heating cooling 10 10% 05 DBT C 00 Fig psychrometric representation of sensitive heating and cooling% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% RH 40% AH g / kg C WBT% KJ / Kg enthalpy cooling 50 C WBT% C WBT 25 C WBT C WBT 10% 05 C WBT C WBT DBT C 00 Fig. Psychrometric representation of cooling through evaporation% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% RH 40% AH g / kg% KJ / Kg enthalpy 0.92 cooling heating 0.90%,, 82 10% 0,, 78 DBT C 00 Fig psychrometric representation of cooling and dehumidification (cooling with water separation, left) as well as heating and humidification (absorption method, right) 29

35 3.3 Climate-friendly architecture The so-called climate-friendly architecture can be described as the transfer of the theory of vernacular architecture into modern and scientifically tested methods. A small selection of the methods for determining the comfort zone and for developing design strategies is presented here: Olgyays bioclimatic chart the tables from Mahoney Givoni's BBCC ABNT Standard Eproklid Olgyay (1963) In 1963 the book Design with Climate by Olgyay was published. In particular, this work contains the first known bioclimatic diagram, which Givoni 1998 explained in detail (Givoni 1998). This diagram was generated on an experimental basis and based on a Cartesian coordinate system in which the dry air temperature (in C) is shown on the vertical axis and the relative humidity (RH in%) is shown on the horizontal axis. (see Fig. 12) Olgyay's diagram consists of three basic elements: a comfort area in the middle, an overheating area at the top, an undercooling area at the bottom Fig Olgyay's bioclimatic diagram 30

36 Olgyay's comfort range The lowest limit of the comfort range is fixed at 21 C (70 F). The upper limit varies according to the relative humidity (RH). When the relative humidity is between and 50 percent, the uppermost comfort limit for the temperature is 27.8 C (82 F). From 50 percent RH, the uppermost comfort limit for the temperature drops in a straight line until it reaches its lowest value at 21 C, which occurs together with the reaching of the maximum 90% RH limit. Olgyay's overheating and subcooling zone As soon as the temperatures exceed the comfort limit and enter the overheated zone, two possible strategies are recommended. The first is the use of air movement with the aim of expanding the comfort limit as the feeling of heat decreases with moving air. The second option is to use evaporation to actually lower the temperature. If the air temperature leaves the comfort range in the direction of the underheated zone, the use of radiant heat, for example through direct sunlight, is recommended. Olgyay's diagram development A site-specific development of the diagram is also available: the diagram of climatic needs (Chart of Climatic Needs). This development shows the scope of the strategies in connection with the course of the year for a specific location (the months are shown on the horizontal axis and the hours are shown on the vertical axis). (see Fig.3.13) Fig Olgyay's diagram of climate demand 31

37 3.3.2 Mahoney (1971) Another very widespread model was developed by Mahoney at the end of the sixties and published in the seventies (Königsberger et al 1971). Mahoney Tables are used to aid the initial design phases of residential construction in tropical mixed climates, but they can also be used in other climates. The model is divided into three groups of tables. The first group is used for the collection of simple sets of climate data. The second group helps with the analytical evaluation of the climate data. The third group helps in choosing the appropriate design strategy. Here the three groups are presented using the example of Bombay, India. The Mahoney tables: Group 1 The required climate data are the monthly mean values ​​for maximum and minimum outside temperature, amount of precipitation, wind direction and strength. Four indices are calculated for this group from this information: Annual Mean Temperature (AMT): Annual mean temperature Annual Mean Range (AMR): Annual temperature fluctuation (maximum maximum temperature minus minimum minimum temperature) Monthly Mean Range: Monthly temperature fluctuation Humidity Group (HG): Relative humidity group. (see Fig. 3.14) The Mahoney tables: Group 2 The analysis of the climatic data leads to a calculation of the thermal comfort. The comfort range is calculated by combining the annual mean value of the outside temperature and the humidity group and is differentiated for day and night. Depending on the result of the comfort analysis, the data are linked to an adequate passive air conditioning strategy, which is coded by a specific indicator (H1 = air movement essential, H2 = air movement desirable, H3 = rain protection necessary, A1 = thermal capacity necessary , A2 = outdoor sleeping desirable, A3 = protection from cold). (see Fig. 3.15, 3.16) The Mahoney tables: Group 3 Finally, a statistical analysis of the climatic data that has already been classified is carried out. For this purpose, the indicators for each month are entered in the table and the result read off in the crossed columns. (see Fig.3.17) 32

38 Input Location Longitude Latitude Altitude New Delhi, India 77 12'E 28 35'N 216m Air temperature (C) JFMAMJJASOND highest AMT monthly mean max 21.3 23.6 30.2 36.2 40.5 39.9 35, 3 33.7 34.1 33.1 28.7 23.4 40.5 24 monthly mean min 7.3 10.1 15.1 21.0 26.6 28.7 27.2 26.1 24.6 18.7 11.8 8.0 7.3 33 monthly mean range 14.0 13.5 15.1 15.2 13.9 11.2 8.1 7.6 9.5 14.4 16.9 15 , 4 lowest AMR Relative humidity (%) RH 56.5 43.5 34.0 24.0 24.5 40.0 66.5 71.0 62.0 44.5 39.5 50.5 Humidity group Humidity group : below 30% 30-50% 50-70% above 70% Rainfall (mm) 24.9 21.8 16.5 6.8 7.9 65,, 2 1.2 5.2 714.2 Total wind, prevailing WWWWWWEWWWWW Wind, secondary NE NE NE NW NW NW SE SE NNNN Speed ​​(m / s) 2.3 2.8 3.0 3.0 3.6 4.1 2.9 4.5 2.7 1.8 1.9 2.1 Fig The tables from Mahoney, group 1, data and indices, e.g. New Delhi, India AMT over C AMT 15- C AMT below 15 C Day Night Day Night Day Night Fig The tables from Mahoney, group 2 , Comfort analysis Hum. Group Applicable when: Meaning: Indicator Thermal stress Day Night Rainfall Humidity group Monthly mean range H 4 Air movement essential H1 H 2,3 Less than 10 Air movement desirable H2 O 4 Rain protection necessary H3 over 0mm Thermal capacity necessary A1 1,2, 3 More than 10 Out-door sleeping H 1,2 desirable A2 HO 1,2 More than 10 Protection from cold A3 CH = HOT O = COMFORT C = COLD Fig The tables from Mahoney, group 2, comfort analysis 33

39 indicator (table 2) H1 H2 H3 A1 A2 A Layout orientation north south compact courtyard Spacing open space for breeze penetration open space + hot and cold protection compact lay-out states Air movement single banked rooms, permanent provision for air movement double banked rooms , permanent provision for air movement no air movement required Openings any other conditions 11 large openings, 40-80% small openings, 10-% medium openings, -40% Walls light walls, short time lags heavy external walls, short time lags Roofs light insulated roof heavy roofs, over 8h time-lag Outdoor sleeping space for outdoor sleeping required Rain protection protection from heavy rain necessary Abb The tables from Mahoney, group 3, strategies 34

40 The Mahoney Tables: Application Examples First, four locations are selected that represent the four main climate groups: climate group A - Singapore, climate group B - Riyadh, climate group C - Lisbon, climate group D - Helsinki. The results of applying Mahoney's tables are shown in Fig. For Singapore, the comfort analysis shows that the focus should be placed on air movement (H1) and additional rain protection must be guaranteed. The construction should therefore be light, the window openings should be large and sun protection devices should be available. (see Fig.3.18) TABLE 3 Indicators total from table 2 H1 H2 H3 A1 A2 A Recomended specifications Layout, X Orientation north and south (longing axis east-west) Compact courtyard planning Spacing 11,12 X, 1 5 Open space for breeze penetration As 3, but protection from hot and cold wind Compact layout estates Air movement 3-12 X, Rooms single banked, permanent provision for air movement Double banked rooms, temporary provision for air movement No air movement required Openings 0.1 0 X 9 11.12 0.1 10 Any other conditions 11 Large openings, 40-80% Very small openings, 10-% Medium openings, -40% Walls 0-2 X Light walls, short time-lag Heavy external and internal walls Roofs 0-2 X Light, insulated roofs Heavy roofs, over 8h time-lag Out-door sleeping Space for out-door sleeping required Rain protection protection for heavy rain necessary Fig The tables from Mahoney, application example Singapore 35

41 For Riyadh, the comfort analysis shows that all months belong to the A category (Arid) with a focus on the A1 area (storage mass). Therefore, a compact design with heavy materials and medium to small window openings is recommended. (see Fig.3.19) TABLE 3 Indicators total from table 2 H1 H2 H3 A1 A2 A Recomended specifications Layout, X 2 Orientation north and south (longing axis east-west) Compact courtyard planning Spacing 11,, 1 X 5 Open space for breeze penetration As 3, but protection from hot and cold wind Compact layout estates Air movement, 1 X Rooms single banked, permanent provision for air movement Double banked rooms, temporary provision for air movement No air movement required Openings 0,, 12 0.1 10 Any other conditions X 11 Large openings, 40-80% Very small openings, 10-% Medium openings, -40% Walls X 13 Light walls, short time-lag Heavy external and internal walls Roofs X 15 Light, insulated roofs Heavy roofs , over 8h time-lag Out-door sleeping 2-12 X 16 Space for out-door sleeping required Rain protection Protection for heavy rain necessary Abb The tables from Mahoney, application example Riyadh 36

42 The results for Lisbon are divided into categories A1 and A3. This indicates a compact design, but without a courtyard. Heavy materials and medium-sized window openings are preferred. (see Fig. 3.) TABLE 3 Indicators total from table 2 H1 H2 H3 A1 A2 A Recomended specifications Layout, X Orientation north and south (longing axis east-west) Compact courtyard planning Spacing 11,, 1 X 5 Open space for breeze penetration As 3, but protection from hot and cold wind Compact layout estates Air movement, 1 X Rooms single banked, permanent provision for air movement Double banked rooms, temporary provision for air movement No air movement required Openings 0,, 12 0.1 10 Any other conditions X 11 Large openings, 40-80% Very small openings, 10-% Medium openings, -40% Walls X 13 Light walls, short time-lag Heavy external and internal walls Roofs X 15 Light, insulated roofs Heavy roofs , over 8h time-lag Out-door sleeping Space for out-door sleeping required Rain protection Protection for heavy rain necessary Abb The tables from Mahoney, application example Lisbon 37

43 The comfort analysis for Helsinki almost exclusively indicates the need for protection against the cold. (see Fig.3.21) TABLE 3 Indicators total from table 2 H1 H2 H3 A1 A2 A Recomended specifications Layout, X Orientation north and south (longing axis east-west) Compact courtyard planning Spacing 11,, 1 X 5 Open space for breeze penetration As 3, but protection from hot and cold wind Compact layout estates Air movement, 1 X Rooms single banked, permanent provision for air movement Double banked rooms, temporary provision for air movement No air movement required Openings 0,, 12 0.1 10 Any other conditions X 11 Large openings, 40-80% Very small openings, 10-% Medium openings, -40% Walls 0-2 X Light walls, short time-lag Heavy external and internal walls Roofs 0-2 X Light, insulated roofs Heavy roofs, over 8h time-lag Out-door sleeping Space for out-door sleeping required Rain protection Protection for heavy rain necessary Abb The tables from Mahoney, application example Helsinki 38

44 3.3.3 Givoni (1976, 1998) The Building Bioclimatic Chart (BBCC) was developed by Givoni and published in 1976. The psychrometric diagram and the comfort range of ASHRAE (see derivation and application 4.2.3) form the basis for his model, and Olgyay's bioclimatic diagram serves as a model. The limits for the application of passive air conditioning strategies are marked on Givoni's diagram, similar to what happened with Olgyay. The BBCC was created through the combination of the strengths of the two models and the additions based on the results of our own experiments. (see Fig.3.22) WINTER WINTER + SUMMER SUMMER RH 90% 30 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% AH-g / Kg% (MAX DBTxRH) MONTH AVERAGE VALUES TRY (daily maximum or daily minimum) NEW DELHI 25 ( MIN DBTxRH)% WBT DBT- C 12 Fig ASHRAE- comfort area with no wind, the lines indicate the monthly mean values ​​for temperature and humidity in New Delhi 39

45 The BBCC: the comfort area The comfort area, in the middle area of ​​the diagram, relates to a calm area and is divided into three categories: Winter Summer Summer in developing countries In winter, the comfort limit of dry temperatures is between 18 and 25 C (DBT). The absolute moisture limit is between 4 and 15 g / kg (AH). The upper limit of the relative humidity is 80% (RH). In summer, the comfort limit shifts by 2 C (between and 27 C). Both the absolute humidity limit and the uppermost limit of the relative humidity remain unchanged. For the developing countries (Givoni does not specify which countries belong to this category), a further shift in the comfort limits is planned for the summer. This shift is 2 C for the dry temperature (maximum 29 C) and 2g / kg for absolute humidity (maximum 17g / kg). (see Fig.3.23) WINTER SUMMER SUMMER DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 30 RH 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% AH-g / Kg%% WBT DBT- C Fig BBCC comfort zone 40

46 The BBCC: passive cooling strategies Outside the comfort zone, four strategies are proposed for passive cooling: Daytime ventilation Night ventilation (Nocturnal Ventilative Cooling) Direct evaporation (Direct Evaporative Cooling) Indirect Evaporative Cooling (Indirect Evaporative Cooling) Daytime ventilation This is the am least expensive strategy for passive air conditioning. It consists of expanding the comfort limit through air movement. This prevents the temperature and humidity from rising, and the feeling of a light breeze (up to 2 m / s in office buildings) on the surface of the skin ensures greater comfort in hot conditions. The inside temperature adjusts to the outside temperature due to the constant exchange of wind, which is why this strategy is not recommended at very high outside temperatures. It enables the upper temperature limit of the comfort range in summer to be shifted by up to 2 C and the humidity limit from 80% to 90% (RH) and from 17 to 19 g / kg (AH). (see Fig.3.24) COMFORT COMFORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DAY VENTILATION INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES DAY VENTILATION DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 30 RH 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% AH-g / Kg%% WBT DBT- C Fig Extension of the comfort limit through air movement: day ventilation 41

47 Night ventilation This strategy requires the building to have a high storage capacity on the one hand and large fluctuations in the outside temperature on the other. The windows remain open during the night and air flows through the interior. As a result, the building's storage mass, which is heated during the day, is discharged and the internal temperature drops in the direction of the external temperature. During the day, the openings are kept closed, which helps to reduce the heat exchange between the interior and exterior. The inside temperature rises more slowly than the outside temperature and stays close to the daily average. The effectiveness of this strategy is related to the daily temperature fluctuation. The use of such strategies in humid climates is not advisable. According to Givoni, the limit of applicability is 36 C (daily maximum DBT) and decreases with the increase in the moisture content to the 15g / kg limit (here the temperature limit is 33 C). With the use of fans, this limit can be shifted by 2 C, from then on other strategies should be preferred. (see Fig.3.25) COMFORT COMFORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES NIGHT VENTILATION NIGHT VENTILATION DEVELOPING COUNTRIES RH 90% 30 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% AH-g / Kg%% WBT DBT- C Fig. Cooling through night ventilation 42

48 Cooling through direct evaporation Cooling through evaporation is a strategy that can only be used in areas with low relative humidity. It is caused by the heat exchange during the evaporation process (see 8.2). With direct evaporation, the increase in the moisture content of the air is related to the decrease in the air temperature (at 70-80%). This ratio corresponds exactly to the difference between the dry (DBT) and the wet bulb temperature (WBT). Therefore the limit of this application follows the WBT line. This strategy requires a large exchange of air with the outside space because of the increase in the moisture content of the air. It can only be up to 2K more effective than a simple, well-insulated wall. For industrialized countries, the limit to using this strategy is 22 C WBT and 42 C DBT. For developing and emerging countries, the limit is 24 C WBT and 44 C DBT. (see fig.3.26) COMFORT COMFORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DIRECT EVAPORATION INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES INDIRECT EVAPORATION DEVELOPING COUNTRIES RH 90% 30 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% AH-g / Kg%% WBT DBT- C Fig Cooling through direct evaporation 43

49 Cooling through indirect evaporation The last passive cooling strategy operates through the evaporation of water from a water container, which lies directly on the ceiling above the room to be air-conditioned. This strategy also requires a low relative outdoor humidity. During the summer, the ceiling remains in direct contact with the outside air during the night, so that the water temperature adjusts to the outside temperature. During the day, the water reservoir remains protected from the sun and the temperature exchange with the outside air is reduced so that the water temperature remains close to the daily mean value of the wet temperature. It is further reduced by the evaporative cooling during the hot hours of the day. This causes the temperature of the ceiling to drop due to the exchange with the water. The ceiling then works like a radiator during the hottest parts of the day. This application is not intended in multi-storey buildings. In single-storey buildings, where this strategy is traditionally used, it is also useful in winter, but in the opposite way. The ceiling is then protected against the cool outside air with thermal insulation during the night and the water is directly exposed to solar radiation during the day. The ceiling thus works like a radiant heater at night. The advantage of this strategy compared to direct evaporation is that the moisture content of the indoor air does not increase because the water is not directly in the room. The limit of the application of this strategy does not differentiate between industrialized countries and emerging and developing countries, and is 24 C WBT and 44 C DBT (see Fig. 3.27). 44

50 COMFORT COMFORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES INDIRECT EVAPORATION 30 RH 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% AH-g / Kg%% WBT DBT- C Fig Cooling through indirect evaporation 45

51 COMFORT 30 90% RH 70% 60% 50% 40% AH-g / Kg 30% DAY VENTILATION% 25 NIGHT VENTILATION 25 DIRECT EVAPORATION 15 10% INDIRECT EVAPORATION WBT DBT- C Fig BBCC of the industrialized countries AH-g / Kg COMFORT 90% RH 30 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 25 DAY VENTILATION% 25 NIGHT VENTILATION DIRECT + INDIRECT EVAPORATION 15 10% WBT DBT- C Fig BBCC of the developing countries 46

52 BBCC: Application examples The application of the Givoni model is illustrated using the same locations as in Mahoney's tables (s). The diagram of Singapore shows that there is a fairly uniform climate here. In every month of the year the temperature and humidity line is above the comfort range. The focus is on air conditioning through air movement (am) and support through active cooling strategies. (see Fig. 3.30) (MAX DBTxRH) MONTHLY AVERAGE VALUES TRY (MIN DBTxRH) at ec 0 tc Fig BBCC, application example Singapore In Riyadh, all months are in the lower area of ​​the diagram, which means that there is regularly low humidity here (arid climate) . The main air conditioning strategies to be read are evaporative cooling (ec) and the storage capacity of the building materials (tc). Active heating must also be used in the cold months. (see Fig.3.31) (MAX DBTxRH) MONTHLY AVERAGE VALUES TRY (MIN DBTxRH) at tc 0 ec Fig BBCC, application example Riad 47

53 For the Lisbon chart, many months are within the comfort zone. Active heating is necessary in the cold times. In contrast to Mahoney, the diagram does not show any need for storage capacity of the building materials. Instead, the emphasis is on air movement in the warm months of the year. (see Fig. 3.32) (MAX DBTxRH) MONTHLY AVERAGE VALUES TRY (MIN DBTxRH) at tc 0 ec Fig BBCC, application example Lisbon The diagram from Helsinki shows that active heating must be used at all times. (see Fig.3.33) (MAX DBTxRH) MONTHLY AVERAGE VALUES TRY (MIN DBTxRH) at tc 0 ec Fig BBCC, application example Helsinki 48

54 3.3.4 Eproklid (08) Basis: ABNT In 03, the Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (ABNT) approved the project for a standard that focuses on setting construction regulations for social housing taking into account the different climatic conditions in Brazil define. ABNT: comfort zone The advantages of the BBCC and the Mahoney tables have been combined and, based on the experience of the specialists, have been adapted to the Brazilian standard. The limits of the comfort range are inclined more sharply than with Givoni and are based on the curve of relative instead of absolute humidity (see Fig. 3.34). In addition, criteria for applying Mahoney-based design strategies were given and a diagram showing the scope for design strategies was developed. COMFORT 90% RH 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% AH-g / Kg 30% DAY VENTILATION 25 NIGHT VENTILATION 25 EVAPORATION HUMIDIFICATION 15 10% 15 STORAGE DIMENSIONS / INSULATION WBT DBT- C Fig ABNT, the comfort area 49

55 The design process with climate data, Eproklid for short, is a design tool developed by de Siqueira in 08, which relates directly to the ABNT and indirectly also to Mahoney and Givoni. ABNT's proposals allowed the advantages of Givoni's diagram and Mahoney's tables to be merged into a single model that focused on the design of the architecture. Eproklid: Comfort range and climate analysis First, the criteria for calculating the comfort range of both models, ABNT and Mahoney, were compared graphically and adjusted again. Since it was found that the absolute air humidity is irrelevant for those design parameters which are directly related to the design of the building, a simplified representation was developed in which the outside temperature in C on the x-axis and the relative humidity on the y-axis is shown in%. The limits of the comfort range are between 21 C and 30 C for an average annual temperature of less than 15 C for an RH of up to 30%. For an RH of 30 to 50% the comfort range is between C and 26 C. For an RH of 50 to 70% the limit is between 19 C and 26 C. From 70% RH the limit is between 18 C and 24 C. This Areas shift upwards by 2 K for an annual mean temperature between 15 C and C and by 4 K for an annual mean value above C. The other criteria used for the analysis of the climate are the daily temperature fluctuation by more than 10 K and the 14g / m³ humidity limit according to DIN 1946 (see Fig. 3.35). RH 70% O H HG 4 HG C HG 2 HG 1 T (indoor comfort limit) C AMT <15 C Fig Eproklid, the comfort range AMT 15- C AMT> C 50

56 Eproklid: Application First, the climate data of the location where the design task is to be solved is analyzed and broken down according to the following tables. (see Fig.3.36) JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 1 2 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 G1 H1 I1 J1 K1 L1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 F2 G2 H2 I2 J2 K2 L2 Tmax Tmin 3 A1- A2 B1-B2 C1-C2 D1-D2 E1-E2 F1-F2 G1-G2 H1-H2 I1-I2 J1-J2 K1-K2 L1-L2 Temperature swing 4 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 F3 G3 H3 I3 J3 K3 L3 Annual mean temperature 5 HIGHEST VALUE OF 1 + LOWEST VALUE OF 2 2 HIGHEST VALUE OF 1 - LOWEST VALUE OF 2 Annual mean range 6 Relative Humidity 1,2,4 KLIMASET: collected measured values ​​for a certain location. This is where the measured values ​​from Meteonorm are created (30 years average). 1 Air temperature Tmax = Mean max. (Mahoney 5) = Tdmax Mean. Daily maximum (Meteonorm 6) 2 Air temperature Tmin = Mean min. (Mahoney 5) = Tdmin Avg. Daily minimum (Meteonorm 6) 4 Relative Humidity (Mahoney 5) = RH = relative air humidity Fig. Eproklid: Entering the climatic data A scheme with nine fields is developed, whereby each of these fields stands for a certain climatic classification. The three columns represent cold (K), neutral (N) and hot (H). Line 1 stands in the neutral and in the hot area for exceeding the humidity limit according to DIN In the cold area, the concept of annual mean range (AMR) introduced by Mahoney is used, and in line 1 those locations are sorted whose annual temperature fluctuation is below K, and whose daily temperature fluctuation Tsw is below 10 K, i.e. places where a more uniform climate prevails. The second line in all three columns relates to measured values ​​whose daily fluctuation remains below 10 K. In the cold area, the annual temperature fluctuation is greater than K, in the neutral and in the hot area the measured values ​​remain below the humid limit. The third line contains the measured values ​​from those locations that show a daily fluctuation of more than 10 K. The relative humidity is not taken into account. (see Fig. 3.37, 3.

57 How far the climatic conditions deviate from the comfort range determines how heavily the individual fields are weighted. (see Fig. 3.39) In this scheme, every 12 months are now marked for a specific location, whereby the climate data is compared with the graphical comfort analysis. The frequency and weighting within the schema are then added together. The result determines the design strategy to be used. (see Fig.3.40) JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL OCT FEB MAR MAY AUG JUN SEP K1 NOV DEC FEB MAR MAY AUG JUN SEP N1 NOV DEC FEB MAR MAY AUG JUN SEP H1 NOV DEC JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL OCT FEB MAY AUG NOV FEB MAY AUG NOV FEB MAY AUG NOV MAR JUN SEP K2 DEC MAR JUN SEP N1 DEC MAR JUN SEP H1 DEC JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL OCT Fig. Weighting of the fields FEB MAY AUG NOV FEB MAY AUG NOV FEB MAY AUG NOV MAR JUN SEP DEC MAR JUN SEP DEC MAR JUN SEP DEC K3 N3 H3 Fig Eproklid: Marking the months Eproklid recommends five design strategies and weights them for each of the nine category fields . This enables a first, rough orientation when working on the design task: Compactness C (Compactness): The ratio of base area, surface and volume, graduated between C = 16 (min) and C = 5 (max) opening percentage VO (Ventilation Openings) : The percentage of openings in the facades in% without taking into account the exposure, between 10% (min) and 80% (max) Sun protection S (Sun Protection): Necessity to protect the window openings from direct sunlight, yes or no Thermal insulation U (U-value) : differentiates between 0 = insulation not necessary and 3 = insulation required Storage capacity T (Thermal Capacity): storage mass of the materials used, differentiated in min to max (see Fig. 3.41, 3.42) MIN MED CO H1 N1 H2 N2 N3 H3 K3 K2 MAX K1 COMPACTNESS MAX MED MIN VO H1 N1 H2 N2 K2 K3 K1 N3 H3 VENTILATION OPENINGS Fig Eproklid: Design strategies YES NO S H1 H2 H3 N1 N2 N3 K2 K3 K1 SUN PROTECTION ø UU VALUE H1 H2 H3 N1 N2 N3 K2 K3 K1 T MIN H1 N1 K1 H2 MED N2 K2 N3 K3 MAX H3 THERMAL CAPACITY MAX MIN MIN MED MAX MAX NO YES YES MIN MED2 MAX MIN MIN MIN MAX MED MIN MED MED MED NO NO YES MED1 MED2 MAX MED MED MED MED MED MED MED MIN MIN NO YES MED1 MED2 MAX MAX MAX MAX (max = very compact) (max = large part of the opening) (YES = protected from direct radiation) (MAX = very transparent) (max = high storage capacity) Fig. Eproklid: Category fields 52

58 Eproklid: Examples of use Eproklid is also to be illustrated using the same locations as the other two methods. For Singapore you can see that every twelve months are sorted into the same field: H3. This makes it easy to choose which strategies to use. Minimum compactness, minimum storage capacity of the building materials, maximum proportion of openings, sun protection devices are required, and there is no need for thermal insulation. (see Fig.3.43) SINGAPORE Air temperature (C) Mean max Mean min Mean range Relative humidity (%) Average Rainfall (mm) movement MAX COMPACTNESS MIN MIN THERMAL CAPACITY MIN MIN MIN MAX MED MIN MED MED MED MED MED MED MAX MAX MAX VENTILATION OPENINGS SUN PROTECTION U VALUE MED MAX MAX NO YES YES MED MED NO NO YES MED MIN MIN NO NO YES K 0 NH Fig Eproklid, application example Singapore 53

59 In Riyadh, the twelve months are distributed fairly evenly across fields C3, N3 and H3. The following strategies can be seen here: medium compactness and maximum storage capacity, the proportion of openings from minimum to medium size, sun protection devices are necessary in five months, and medium thermal insulation is required in seven months. (see Fig.3.44) RYIADH Air temperqture (C) Mean max Mean min Mean range Relative humidity (%) Average Rainfall (mm) COMPACTNESS THERMAL CAPACITY MAX MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MAX MED MIN MED MED MED MED MED MED MAX MAX MAX VENTILATION OPENINGS SUN PROTECTION U VALUE MED MAX MAX NO YES YES MED MED MED NO NO YES MED MIN MIN NO NO YES KNH Fig Eproklid, application example Riad 54

60 The twelve months in Lisbon are spread across fields C2, N1 and H1, with the focus with six months sorted in C2. The strategies to be read are maximum compactness in six months and minimum compactness in the other six months, medium to minimum storage capacity of the building materials, medium to maximum opening proportion of the facades, sun protection devices required in six months, medium thermal insulation required in nine months. Since some of the statements seem to contradict each other here, it must be weighed up whether to focus on the frequency of the individual fields or on the weighting. This applies in particular to the compactness of the building and the proportion of openings in the facades. If, for example, one decides on the frequency of classification, the result would be a more compact building with a smaller proportion of openings. (see Fig.3.45) LISBOA Air temperqture (C) Mean max Mean min Mean range Relative humidity (%) Average Rainfall (mm) MAX COMPACTNESS MIN MIN THERMAL CAPACITY MIN MIN MIN MAX MED MIN MED MED MED MED MED MED MAX MAX MAX VENTILATION OPENINGS SUN PROTECTION U VALUE MED MAX MAX NO YES YES MED MED MED NO NO YES MED MIN MIN NO NO YES KNH Fig Eproklid, application example Lisbon 55

61 In Helsinki nine months are sorted into field C2, the other three are in field N2, H1 and H2. For the evaluation, you can concentrate on field C2 here. The result of the reading is: maximum compactness, medium storage capacity, medium opening proportion, no sun protection devices required, medium thermal insulation required. (see fig.3.46) Helsinki Air temperqture (C) Mean max Mean min Mean range Relative humidity (%) Average Rainfall (mm) MAX COMPACTNESS MIN MIN THERMAL CAPACITY MIN MIN MIN MAX MED MIN MED MED MED MED MED MED MAX MAX MAX VENTILATION OPENINGS SUN PROTECTION U VALUE MED MAX MAX NO YES YES MED MED MED NO NO YES MED MIN MIN NO NO YES KNH Fig Eproklid, application example Helsinki 56

62