Can anklet recognize drugs

Anamnesis in drug help

The path from the beginning of your studies to successful work with your first client in a certain field of work is comparable to a complex research process. Your own prior knowledge and your own living environment are repeatedly confronted on different levels with new content and living environments, which are examined in detail against the already existing background and are gradually incorporated into the repertoire of professional action.

In doing so, one develops professional competence starting from the general to the particular and thereby gains an overview of

1. Profession

2. Occupational fields

3. Focus in the professional field

4. Work of a vehicle

5. Lives of clients of the vehicle

6. His client's life

To the extent that one develops the individual levels and approaches the individual, the questions that can be answered with the knowledge acquired become more concrete. In addition, the question arises more intensely at every level as to whether you have made the right career choice for yourself; this question should be asked self-critically again and again without false shame; it becomes more and more difficult to jump off at a later point in time. This work is too grueling to do just as a job; later reluctant to operate them endangers both mental and physical health.

At the BSP of the 'psychosocial care of methadone-substituted drug addicts', such a 'research process' is to be traced:

When Gabi Maier at the age of 36 with psychiatric problems after several years of consuming hard drugs, prostitution and hepatitis C, now wants to train as a nanny, one can still feel overwhelmed even after many years of professional experience. Before you can help Gabi and develop an idea of ​​the usefulness of her idea, you will first have to ask and answer a lot of questions. First of all, to clarify: In this field of work, the aim is that people who have been using heroin for years are now legally using the substitute drug Methadone is supplied, which is swallowed in liquid form and in its effect comparable to heroin, which prevents withdrawal symptoms. These appearances are connected with torments that are unimaginable for outsiders. The fear of this torment will at some point replace the initially felt positive feelings of opiate consumption as a motivation and thus prevent the exit from the living environment, which is characterized by illness, criminalization, prostitution, fears of death and social exclusion. Legal access to the drug is intended to break these relationships and enable people to initially organize their lives without the restrictions mentioned, in order to later stop using the substitute drug methadone under medical supervision. Social work supports this process in all areas that are not explicitly reserved for psychotherapy, medicine or legal advice; It's about finances, training, living, leisure, everyday skills. Before we can help Gabi, we have to feel our way from general to specific, i.e. from superficial ideas about the professional field of social work to Gabi's life situation and her career aspirations.

In order to clarify this process, I want to explain it in detail: I will start at the very beginning and will particularly present the area of ​​the anamnesis in a more differentiated manner than is usually the case in everyday working life:

Once you have acquired your technical college entrance qualification, the question inevitably arises as to which vocational training should be undertaken. Anyone who has already completed a voluntary social year or community service may already know more precisely whether the good certificate should be used to qualify for helping people. You can visit the technical colleges on open days, read information brochures from the employment office, ask around in your circle of acquaintances or simply speak to a social worker to make sure of your career aspirations. The following questions can be answered through such contacts:

  • Is social work interesting for me?
  • Where can I study social work and under what conditions?
  • In which fields of work are social workers needed?
  • (...)

If you have decided to study social work, the basic course gives you a general overview of the basics of social work and all of the basic sciences on which it is based. One attends events like

  • Introductory seminars in social work,
  • Methodology, didactics and action strategies of social work,
  • Occupational fields of social work,
  • History of social work,
  • Social policy,
  • Sociology, medicine, law, political science, psychology and pedagogy of social work,
  • (...)

Short internships provide a first glimpse into practice. These are reflected on against the background of the theoretical foundations and individual life experiences. Sometimes this works better when you get together in small groups than under the guidance of the university. Such groups are essential in order to gain broader access to practice and theory through the individual impressions and interpretations of fellow students. In addition, attempts should now be made to reconcile student jobs with professional experience (children's and youth camps, group offers in youth clubs, outpatient care services instead of cleaning, pubs, taxis and retail). For theoretical deepening, one should read 'a whole introductory book' on social work or its basic sciences in addition to encyclopedic articles and, if necessary, attend specialist conferences on exciting topics of social work and prefer these to the general course offerings. The following question can be answered after the introductory seminars, the first internship and the exchange with fellow students:

  • Which fields of work (e.g. drug help) are there and which are interesting for me?
  • What does interdisciplinarity mean in social work and which disciplines are important and why?
  • What do ideal-typical courses of socio-educational help processes look like?
  • Which legal bases shape social work according to which system?
  • (...)

At the latest in the transition to the main course, specialization begins according to target groups (old, disabled, young, foreign, people ...), according to methods (individual, group or community work) perhaps also according to forms of access (advice, open work, research, teaching) or according to topics (health, leisure, education and addiction ...). You will find that all of the basic disciplines represented at the FH make contributions to the field of addiction and drugs. Aspects are addressed partly in the form of independent seminars, as topics of individual events or only in the form of case studies:

  • Drugs and law (legal and illegal drugs; BTMG; 'therapy instead of punishment' ...),
  • Drugs and medicine (effects of drugs; health damage and healing by drugs; causal and consequential diseases of drug use; importance of substitution treatment for health; importance of AIDS and hepatitis in drug help ...),
  • Drugs and public opinion / media: (importance of stigmatization of drug users in the media; drug users as scapegoats ...),
  • Drugs and criminology (Is addiction a disease or a crime? Decriminalization as a socio-educational necessity?! ...),
  • Drugs by age group (Is drug use a part of adolescent 'normality'? At what age do people decide why to end their addictive behavior? ...),
  • Drugs by gender (are there what gender preferences when choosing the substance, when starting to use it, when manifesting and when leaving? ...),
  • Drugs and prevention (differentiation between primary, secondary, tertiary prevention; what good is deterrence through punishment? What does 'make children strong' against drugs mean? ...),
  • Drugs and politics (state drug policy to distract from social grievances; social policy as a cause or solution to addiction problems ...),
  • Drugs and sociology (relationship between social and individual responsibility for causing and solving the drug problem ...)
  • Drugs and history (medical use of cannabis, ecstasy, heroin and cocaine in other cultures, in older and more recent history; today in the hidden and tomorrow in the youth club? ...),
  • Drugs and psychology (psychological aspects to explain the motivation or the subjective sense of drug use; learning theories to explain and prevent drug abuse ...),
  • Drugs and education (drug education as a prohibition, as a warning, as information, as a joint self-experiment, as a dosage advice; the importance of adventure playgrounds in drug help ...),
  • Drug help / therapy (exit-oriented, outpatient, inpatient, long, short, repressive, accepting, therapeutic, socio-educational? ...),
  • (...)

The following questions can be answered after these deepenings:

  • What is the legitimation of the individualization thesis in locating 'guilt' for drug abuse?
  • How and why did helping medicine become a devilish poison?
  • At what age do which prevention approaches show their greatest impact?
  • Which contradictions between the prevailing drug policy and the professional ethical, general, didactic and methodological foundations affect how in practice?
  • (...)

The probability is not very high that you will also find your career entry in the field of study, because in the end you are more oriented towards the job market than your favorite area of ​​work. It can take a while before a position in the 'psychosocial care of methadone-substituted drug addicts' is finally advertised. The old notes and memories from your studies help to write a successful application and to be invited to an interview. Passing this is unlikely without deepening knowledge of the field of work; Since you have already successfully started your career in another field of work, it is not difficult this time to familiarize yourself quickly and in a structured manner:

  • Lexicons not only provide an overview of the relevant key words, but also of the basic general specialist books on the subject of addiction and drugs.
  • The legal fundamentals can be developed quickly if the basic system of 'law' is understood. Since drug addicts on the one hand have a special need for help and on the other hand are exposed to a high level of social and criminal control, one will certainly look for suggestions in the BSHG under 'Help in special situations' (§§39,72 BSHG) and under additional needs (§23 BSHG) , as well as in the STGB and BTMG.
  • Before the interview you will rummage through the literature in order to e.g. to get an idea of ​​the life worlds that shape that clientele and that differ significantly from ours.
  • You have to develop both the accepting and the disciplining attitude or philosophy of drug help in order to be able to position yourself.
  • You will be able to search the Internet accurately using keywords such as 'methadone', 'substitution', 'accepting drug work', 'decriminalization'.
  • there e.g. about the cannabis study by Kleiber and Kovar fall - which is generally recognized - puts an end to the untenable cannabis myths.
  • Current figures on addiction and drugs can be found at the Federal Statistical Office.
  • At the Federal Ministry of Health you can find references to methadone substitution as well as to the model tests for the allocation of original substances (heroin).
  • Since we now know that opiates such as heroin, codeine or methadone as pure substances cause little damage to health when dosed correctly and can mutually suppress the withdrawal symptoms, it is plausible to us that the medically controlled allocation of the original substance heroin, sustainably improves the Quality of life (health, social, work, education, law enforcement ...).
  • If this is still difficult to believe, you can find example on the Internet. References to the Frankfurt heroin program, which is largely due to the initiative of the Frankfurt CDU mayor Roth.
  • Reading the Swiss Heroin Study (University of Zurich 1997) ensures that preparation is based on social science and medicine.
  • Socio-educational preparation can be optimized if you seek contact with another drug aid facility, talk to your colleagues and maybe even spend two days in observation.
  • (...)

In the interview with a carrier of the accepting drug work you should be able to answer the following question:

  • Do you think controlled heroin dispensing or substitution treatment with methadone makes more sense and why?
  • How would you like to weight the drug-free aspect in your work?
  • How do you see the contradiction between a special need for help according to §72 BSHG and special state control interests according to BTMG? What do you think of §35 BTMG?
  • (...)

Since we have to prepare ourselves to work with certain people, we have to approach the individual view of drug users. Different research methods offer us more or less help in their publications:

Quantitative research

rather give an overview of the spread and increase of consumption, offenses, deaths, the regional spread or the connections between drug use and age, nationality, education, marital status. Here one tried to reach a large number of people via questionnaires, interviews and files; there is a lot of representative information, but it is relatively superficial. Social problems and developments can be recorded in their quantitative dimensions and forecast with high probabilities. These average results certainly increase the accuracy of our work in relation to all of our clients, but whether they actually help Gabi remains questionable at first.

Qualitative research

are more likely to provide answers to the subjective motivation of clients to use drugs. They determine how they feel, which perspectives they see, which help would be useful from their point of view, why, and why others are unsuccessful. These investigations can formulate theses as to why which actors play which role in relation to the cause and solution of the drug problem. From the consumer's perspective, we can also see the difference between having a drug problem or a drug policy and prosecution problem. Since we usually did not use the drugs ourselves, the users alone can convey how dangerous the substance really is and under what conditions; Self-attempts by social education workers regularly fail, as information is collected from far fewer people, but which has been researched much more intensively and / or for a longer period of time. Above all, surveys and observations, but also the analysis of individual written sources such as diaries or letters, provide information. The results give exemplary close insights into the real worlds of clients; Although they hardly provide any information on, for example, 'The development of hard drug use in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1990', they do provide ideas as to why Gabi still used heroin after so many setbacks, how her motivation has changed since she started using it and what she did Back then and what could keep them from doing it now. As long as we have no direct client contact, qualitative research results alone can give an idea of ​​everyday working life in drug help practice.

The following questions could be answered at this level:

  • Can you portray the life situation of users of hard illegal drugs in an ideal type?
  • Gabi was a happy and popular child in kindergarten; no one had a problem with her, and neither did she with anyone. If you let your imagination run wild, can you explain the development that first led to drug addiction and later to absolute impoverishment?
  • How is drug consumption developing in the new federal states and what specific problems does this lead to in families?
  • Can you consider possible causes of the so-called 'drug deaths'?
  • (...)

The transition to the practice can be made through mailed brochures, concepts, statutes, therapy contracts, house rules, evaluation results, from drug aid agencies, through expert interviews with employees or the evaluation of files, reports or anonymised résumés. At the practical level, you now get to know distinctions that previously had only a theoretical meaning: 'abstinence-oriented', 'preventive', 'drug-supported', 'semi-inpatient'. Now you know how to answer questions such as:

  • What significance does drug freedom play and why for those involved in accepting drug work?
  • Which phases do the clients of abstinence-oriented long-term inpatient therapies go through?
  • Can you identify the 4-phase model of social work in the self-portrayals of the providers?
  • Can you work out differences in the life situation and the forms of treatment of users of legal and illegal drugs?
  • Which interpretations of prevention can be derived? Is open youth work prevention?
  • "Why Huckleberry Finn Didn't Get Addicted to Drugs" is the title of one book; what may be meant by the title?
  • (...)

Establishing contact with consumers in advance of preparing for an interview is difficult. You have not received a mandate from the consumer and are usually mistaken for a plainclothes policeman. For fear or to protect themselves from criminalization, those affected cannot risk contact with strangers, non-consumers outside of the explicit client relationship. Consumers also have no desire and logically no time to talk to strangers, as they have to organize up to € 100 a day. At best, you can watch the open drug scene in passing, attend public court hearings, seek contact with colleagues from drug help and maybe sit in for a few days or make yourself useful at the coffee bar. You now know the answer to questions:

  • Can you explain the organizational structure of Carrier X and its methods?
  • Can you describe your emotions that were triggered by the first contact with the drug relief clientele?
  • Can you imagine working in this area? What problems and opportunities could arise for you in your work?
  • (...)

Once you have received the job, first establish contact with the clientele in general and then with the first 'own' client: For this initial contact, a few considerations would have to be made:

First contact considerations:

  • Where should it take place, in what form?
  • Do I prefer when others are around?
  • At the desk or at the next table, with tea and cake?
  • Do I leave keys on the table when I go to the bathroom ...?
  • Which questions do I want to ask why?
  • How punctual does he have to come without me being offended? Should I say it when I am offended?
  • Is he tall, strong, aloof, neglected ???
  • Nonverbal utterances need to be understood before I interpret them; how can I make sure of my interpretations? (The clients often avoid direct eye contact - they have had the experience that many first look into their pupils and then decide whether it is worth talking to them at all ...)
  • (...)

At the end of the first contact, I want to be able to answer questions:

  • Do I want / can I work with Gabi and does she want it too?
  • What problems does she have? Which ones have to be solved immediately (housing, food, health, welfare ...)? What explanations does it give for causes? What is her motivation to come to us? What are its goals? How often should she come ...?
  • (...)

If you have carried out a large number of anamneses in the course of a longer professional activity, reflecting on interventions and checking successes, you can not only get involved in drug and social policy, but above all publish your work results yourself and thus new students and young professionals during their entry into provide drug help with advice and action.

Unfortunately, there is often no time for a detailed anamnesis - with case codes up to 1-50. It is then reduced to the granting of a release from confidentiality and a recording sheet, so that too little information is recorded on which an action strategy could legitimately be based. There is a risk that only the most current and urgent problems will be dealt with from above until they are no longer a problem, but without developing long-term resources for self-help, autonomy and, if possible, drug-free coping with life.

Admission sheet

Berlin, the

Surname:                                                                                                          Health insurance:
First name:                                                                                                              Social Welfare Office No .:
Address / type of accommodation:                                                                                Doctor. (Name, address, phone no.)
Date of birth:                                                                                                Diseases:

Tel .: §35 yes / no

I am substituted with / want to be substituted with / L polamidone / methadone / codeine preparations

Secondary consumption: heroin? / Cocaine? / Tablets (which ones?) ____________ / alcohol? / Cannabis?

I hereby apply for a place in the 'psychosocial support' at __________

If I get a childcare place, I would like:

  • a woman as caregiver I hereby release my caregiver
  • a man as a reference carer Mr. ___________ of the obligation of confidentiality
  • no matter

Signature signature

With the permission of the client and release from the duty of confidentiality, files can be requested from other institutions. Knowledge of such expert opinions harbors particular dangers and is ambivalent. You can gain helpful insights, but you can also be blocked and lose your impartiality. Working with files is an ambivalent matter; you can compare the problem - greatly reduced - with the children's game 'Stille Post'. When a message is whispered in a circle into the next ear, a lot of information is lost, others are added. Some rascals deliberately falsify the message because they are in pursuit of their own interests, and in the end, the original information is often nothing to be seen. At the risk of getting the wrong picture of your client, there are good reasons not to read files or only to read them at a late point in time: Diagnoses from one institution are each a fragment for the anamnesis of the following institution and can look there steer in the wrong direction. In the professional debate there is disagreement as to whether one should take this risk or rather forego information; So one can only urgently appeal to self-critically examine whether one is being robbed of one's objectivity to the detriment of the clients. Germain and Rasterman (1988: 37) consider it essential to prepare for the first contact by studying files and indirectly suggest that one should actively seek additional preliminary information and that it cannot be enough:

"Before seeing the client for the first time, the social worker prepares to deal with the client's objective and subjective concerns. Objective reality is taken into account by examining the data that is available to you - however little it is may be - and by evaluating their possible significance for the client's situation and for the initial conversation between the social worker and the client on a trial basis. "

Burkhard Müller Müller ???? takes an opposing position:

"When I first study case files or research early childhood experiences, before I have even spoken to the people involved, I act as if I wanted to get to know someone I don't know better and faster by making inquiries ( with third parties) move in through him or ask at the first meeting whether he has a problem with his mother. "

Müller trusts that the necessary information will flow quickly and to a sufficient extent if we have first created a trusting atmosphere regardless of the facts. Furthermore, he points out that we should always look at previous information with great skepticism and aloof and only evaluate it as a hypothesis and never as a technical-conclusive judgment; we also cause irritation in the client when we show that we know more about him than he has told us himself. If we also want to use information from third parties, we should always allow ourselves to be explicitly re-legitimized by the client. I hope to be able to illustrate this ambivalence with a BSP:

Final report for Ms. Maier

We report on Ms. Maier who stayed in our therapy facility from 6 / 99-12 / 99.

Diagnoses: Paranoid-hallucinatory psychosis from the schizophrenic circle of forms

Time in remission Polytoxicomania, now abstinent

Medication: Dominal 100 mg at night

Dapotum 20 mg 4 weekly IM

Ms. Maier was born out of wedlock. Nothing is known about the course of pregnancy and birth. At the time of birth, her mother was 19 years old. The biological father is unknown. Ms. Maier grew up with her mother and her then partner for the first two years. When he hit her with a shovel, she was placed in a home. After the divorce, the mother remarried. A daughter, currently around 19 years old, emerged from this marriage. Ms. Maier has more or less loose telephone contact with her mother.

At the age of six, Ms. Maier was released from the home to a foster family. The foster father had sexually abused her. Then she came back to the home at the age of seven. From there she was transferred to another home. There it came to physical abuse by the educators. Later in the boarding school there were the first criminal acts in the form of break-ins, theft and extortion, which is why there was repeated physical abuse on the part of the home management. For a short time she was in a youth apartment, trying to train as a nurse. At the age of 17, she was sentenced to a suspended sentence for bodily harm. After that, she dropped out and moved in with her boyfriend near her mother's home. The relationship is said to be 'beautiful'. She ended up at the age of 18 after the stepfather tried to rape her and she fatally injured him with a knife. While in prison for five years, she began an apprenticeship as a tailor, which she then broke off in favor of a carpenter's apprenticeship. After the end of her detention, she also broke off this teaching. Less than a year later, she was sentenced to another three years in prison for joint robbery and aggravated assault. The first conviction for drug use and trafficking came at the age of 28. With the start of drug therapy, the enforcement was suspended. After four weeks she stopped the therapy, went into hiding with friends and earned her living by prostitution. Because of psychological problems, she later applied for admission to psychiatry herself.

Somatic history:

A history of a tonsillectomy in childhood, severe migraine attacks and past hepatitis C are known,

Drug history:

Ms. Maier states that she has drunk more alcohol since the age of 14 and that she has consumed more cannabis since the age of 16. Consume connection with sleeping pills. At the age of 19, LSD was used for the first time and a little later, cocaine sniffed. The consumption of heroin began at the age of 21; initially sniffed, injected from 1989. With the drugs she wanted to reduce the uncomfortable feeling of loneliness in the prison. With regard to drug addiction, there have so far been two attempts at therapy, each of which was terminated prematurely.

Psychiatric history:

At the age of 19, temporally diffuse feelings of threat appeared for the first time, as well as acoustic hallucinations and feelings of persecution. Accompanied by strong, depressive moods, she attempted her first suicide at the age of 21. She then had to be treated in the forensic department of psychiatry for almost a year. Ms. Maier stabilized herself there in the course of treatment with neuroleptics; then made a second suicide attempt while reducing the medication. Initially, as part of 'therapy instead of punishment', both the drug problem and the florid psychosis should be treated. She broke this attempt, but a little later asked again for admission to the psychiatric ward and was later transferred to our facility.

To the course:

Ms. Maier was accepted into our home in June last year. During the psychopathological assessment as part of the admission, she was clear of consciousness and oriented towards all qualities. There were moderate deficits in the area of ​​concentration and, to a lesser extent, formal thought disorders. In all of her psychodynamic behavior, she was very anxious and insecure. This was shown above all in an almost submissive obedience. Presumably, their traumatic experiences make themselves felt in the context of previous forms of institutionalized accommodation. In view of this extremely high level of conformity, a stable working basis was only slowly developed for the therapeutic staff. However, she quickly made contact with the other clients. Thanks to her age-related greater life experience, her empathy and the willingness to support the weaker members of the group in particular, she became an important point of reference for the group. The very adapted behavior became clear here, too, when attempts were made to avoid conflicts as much as possible and to reveal one's own needs prematurely and to an excessive extent. Against this background, we also interpret a relapse with a small amount of cannabis, which, however, was caused by the ego fragility. On the positive side, she brought up the relapse of her own accord. In many cases she could not withstand the peer pressure. Ms. Maier's strength as an ego was slowly strengthened. This is closely related to the fact that she was given the opportunity to play music first within the facility and later outside again, to put together a band and to lead it. It became possible to express the emotions in a socially appropriate way, to put one's own competencies at the center of the group and, when performing, to pay more attention. However, she tended to overestimate herself, which occasionally led to mental and physical exhaustion. The endurance was tried to work through occupational therapy and dealing with stressful situations was ex. systematically and practically every day in department stores, football stadiums or during rush hour on buses and trains.

At the level of productive symptoms, only some symptoms could be observed with the administration of neurolepics. However, we consider a complete reduction of the medication to be contraindicated, since it can be determined from anamnesty that without appropriate medication protection, the florid productive symptoms quickly exacerbated with the consequence of renewed drug consumption. In addition, it became clear that new situations and increased personal responsibility continue to give rise to paranoid attacks. As part of her professional reintegration, Ms. Maier took up four hours a day of limited employment with an integration company. According to the workshop foreman, all work was done in a strikingly correct and reliable manner. However, the increase in requirements and the associated personal responsibility led to phenomena of excessive demands. For fear of rejection, she was unable to problematize the experience of excessive demands in therapy. During her weekend stays with her boyfriend, she instead compensated for this emotional dissonance by repeatedly consuming cannabis. For fear of having to serve a prison sentence in the event of discontinuation of therapy, she kept silent about the increasing consumption of heroin. This became known to us only after another suicide as a result of the separation of the friend.

In November there was a psychotic crisis. Parallel to the increasing labilization due to the excessive demands at the workplace, the acoustic hallucinations also increased. Attempts at vocational integration were put on hold and drug-free leisure time activities were the focus.

Ms. Maier was released into her own apartment. At the time of discharge, there was a partial remission of the psychopathological symptoms such as freedom from addictive substances. Outpatient follow-up care is recommended because of acute alcohol risk.

Sincerely

If we have read this report at an early stage, possibly even before the first interview, it can make our work more difficult; to prevent us hastily and unnecessarily from taking over the client or preventing us from feeding her impartially:

  • We have an idea how far Gabi's life situation differs from ours and how difficult it can be to tap into it in order to build up a working basis.
  • These differences, the concentration of problems, the number of 'failed' attempts to help, and the sometimes difficult to understand terms can make us feel insecure and give up.
  • We can have fear of failure and now try to compensate for this by keeping a distance from Gabi.
  • Even at the beginning we may use energies to look for reasons for a possible failure with Gabi so that we do not have to doubt our professional competence at the end.
  • Maybe that's why we tell ourselves that at least nothing can be made worse and that Gabi doesn't really have a chance anyway and then adjust our commitment to this skepticism.
  • Knowing about the stabbed stepfather could frighten us and move us to a selective lurking and defensive position so as not to overlook any aggressive impulses.
  • Perhaps we tend to deny people integrity, strength and self-esteem in general when they have prostituted themselves.
  • Do we have our own stigmatization under control?
  • (...)

If reports are checked by the client and signed by them, one has at least one indication that it at least partially coincides with the subjective view of the client and that this should not be suppressed in general; However, it should not be forgotten that those affected are rarely allowed to hand in their signature on an equal footing with the reviewing authorities. In addition, the institution's own interests are always conveyed: It is conveyed that successes are attributable to the sponsor and failures to the client and that their interpretation is above any form of criticism. Just as the signature can help reduce skepticism, the operationalization of the interpretation is a sign of seriousness. Operationalization usually means that initially all facts are presented without comment and only then - for everyone comprehensible and verifiable - the conclusions are drawn from them and justified; in this way everyone can check for himself whether the interpretations seem plausible to him; some reports even completely dispense with fixed classifications and are limited to the impartial presentation of objective facts.

'She's a bitch' gives a negative impression on a client; 'It was immediately clear to us that she was a slut because she wears different socks, doesn't brush her teeth in the evening and doesn't plait her long hair,' suggests that the client might be okay. and the teacher has a dubious idea of ​​'normality'. As long as you have no clues for the interpretation and the individual perspective on the assessed behavior is missing, you should not be impressed in case of doubt. Prodosh Aich (1973: 18ff) conveys ideas about the negative dynamics of stigmatizing files: The development of children in care is documented through social biographies based on files and it is convincing that the reports in the files are, to a large extent, the cause of exclusion and 'deviating' biographies are. The young people are met with prejudices and their behavior is selectively evaluated according to these prejudices. In order to continue to secure clients and financing, only negative characteristics are presented in the reports and these are overdramatized and positive ones are negated; a never-ending cycle arises when the next sponsor derives new prejudices from the old report ...

"The first home report about Peter arrives in mid-August 1956. It has changed a lot in the short time: 'It has become difficult for Peter to get used to home life and to integrate himself into the community. He is mentally behind his peers and finds no contact with them. His closed and negative attitude makes it difficult to understand him in an educative way. Only when he believes he is unobserved does he come out of himself, but then immediately attracts attention because he likes to talk dirty and against younger people Comrades is raw and rowdy. If Peter is to be promoted in character and school it is necessary that he remains in care for a longer period of time. We consider the arrangement of the final welfare education to be advisable. ' If Peter was considered to be 'nice to him physically inferior', 'not quarrelsome', a 'good playmate' and 'joker' before he was admitted to the home, he has either only changed to the disadvantage in or through the home or the home lies, to secure client and money. At the end of August, 12 days later, the order of the final FE is requested. A month later it is ordered. "

What can only be guessed at here is increasingly becoming a reality. Clients, employees and sponsors are in a symbiotic relationship to one another: sponsors went bankrupt and employees would be unemployed if it weren't for the suffering of the client, the fear of him, or his threat to society. Since existential fear has spread increasingly in the institutions of social work, they themselves begin to talk to their clients worse than it really is, in order to secure their own existence. In drug help, people have even agreed to give therapeutic interventions a repressive-controlling character in order to ensure that the public prosecutor and judge will refer them to their clientele (Bossong & Marzahn & Scheerer 1983). This is still the exception; However, it is common practice to postpone the length of stay by means of poor forecasts and expert reports, to receive an extension of the grant or to achieve an upgrade in the standard rate. At the same time, an attempt is made to increase the proportion of 'adaptable' clients who require little work and who separate or do not even accept those who 'do too much work':

  • Anyone applying for psychotherapeutic follow-up care after chemotherapy should specify e.g. 'severe risk of suicide' as a further indication.
  • Youth camps should not be justified by stating that the children should acquire social skills in their free time and group experiences in conjunction with fun and games are particularly suitable for this, but rather with 'extremely high drug risk due to attested massive damage to the environment'; then if exactly such youngsters want to go with them, they will be refused because they could endanger the others.
  • If therapies are not approved because of psychosomatically justified vertigo, 'first signs of exogenous psychosis' may have to be added.
  • (...)

One cannot blame the providers for this practice, they often have - also in the interests of their clients - hardly any other chance than to compensate for the savings in the social and health sector through the expansion of stigmatization on record. It may seem contradicting Talk to your own clientele worse than it really is in order to be able to help them. Today, appraisals follow a pattern quite regularly:

The client came to our facility with problems. - The facility is ideal. - The client has already made great strides. - A new disadvantage was added, a repressed one was added, or the actual disadvantage is much more massive than it was when it was recorded. - Complete healing could not be achieved in the allotted time or with the previously approved measures. - However, this is imminent and only requires an increase / extension of the grant. - Of course you are still the right porter. - To stop the treatment now would permanently destroy all progress made so far. - This would make the endangerment for yourself and society latent again ...

All social pedagogues will soon learn to write such reports very routinely; At first glance, these appear to be objectively useful for the client, if the benefits in relation to the consequences of increased stigmatization should be carefully weighed against each other ...

In order to organize our associations with regard to the present report from drug help, it is advisable to record weaknesses, resources / starting points for the intervention and initial ideas for causes on paper. As long as the clients have not confirmed the content, this can only be done cautiously in theses-like form, knowing the momentum that such reports can develop for me and others. If you discuss such records with other colleagues, the accuracy increases. In this case it seems ex. to be important to develop an idea whether one is endangered after the homicide; a disordered, diffuse fear, is detrimental to work in any case ...

ProblemsResources / starting pointsReasons for problems?
Criminal recordSociablePhysical violence experience
Cooperation is based in large part on fear and obedience rather than a reflected sense of trust; Gabi's mistrust is due to her story and does not have to be ascribed to me personally.Honesty / commitment in social or therapeutic workSexual abuse
Detention experiencesempathyProstitution experiences
Drug addiction / use of illegal and legal drugs in addition to methadone treatmentImpressive perseverance, always making new attempts to improve the living situationExperience of breach of trust (friends, mother, educators, teachers, social workers)
Lack of professional qualificationRelatively high level of initiative when looking for solutionsLow self-esteem
Low stamina / slight overstrain / hypersensitivity to stressRelatively high willingness to cooperatelonliness
Depressiveness, diffuse fears, psychotic symptomsBasic knowledge and skills in carpentry, tailoring, nursingFrequent change of central pedagogical reference persons
Suicide riskBelow the threshold of excessive demands, pronounced willingness and competence to work, responsible and reliable work behavior 
epilepsyWillingness to help, especially towards weaker people 
conflict-aversemusically 
Selective overconfidence   

Only after talking to a somewhat older client, introducing yourself as 'the new one', it suddenly became clear that it was Gabi, of whom you read the file in the first week. The colleague wanted to hand over the Maier file because she was annoyed by Gabi and it was a good start for me. Although one had approached the content with great care and reflected on the spontaneous associations, one was surprised: the voice was quieter, the stature more delicate, the restraint stronger and the overall impression friendlier than expected. She now has a nice apartment, social assistance would come regularly. no particular problems, she just feels lonely, just watches TV and would drink all the time. Then when she sees women her age, she wished she had a child, someone who would be with her all the time.

Individual aspects from the file reappeared in the back of my mind. After checking the files again, you were able to spin a few thoughts: On the one hand, the thought of having your own child with 'poor stamina', 'slightly overstrained', and 'hypersensitive to stress' caused astonishment. One could suspect that this is an indication of 'selective overconfidence'. If 'depression', 'diffuse fears' and 'suicide risk' correspond to reality, there is a risk that the fragmented biography will repeat itself. On the other hand, 'empathy', experiences in 'nursing' and 'willingness to help weaker people' and, last but not least, the friendly first impression, did not generally speak against their wishes. A child would currently have a therapeutic function for the mother; but this collides with the professional obligation to serve the 'well-being of the child'.

Animal lovers have to forgive if one can also think of a dog, perhaps a Colli, like Lessie against this background. Using my basics of interviewing, I seemingly casually steer the next conversation to the dog idea. It is immediately taken up enthusiastically, but immediately discarded because such a dog is expensive to maintain and also costs taxes. Quite sensibly, she didn't want to get into trouble with the authorities again about taxes. I ask, 'Is it OK if I think more about how it can be done without the hassle and financial burden. Whether you could ask them about it again if necessary ... 'In the back of your mind you already know that in several respects you can definitely be assigned to the group of people with' special social difficulties' according to §72 BSHG (addiction, parole with parole, psychological impairment) and possibly even fall under 'integration of disabled people' according to §39ff. However, it is too early to stir up hopes immediately and promise a dog right away. After reading the BSHG comment, one can take courage. But under no circumstances will she be able to enforce this requirement at the social welfare office, neither when she says, 'I want a dog according to §72 BSHG' and certainly not when she only says, 'I want a dog.' You can explain to Gabi the importance of §72 BSHG, deny the points of contact (addiction, probation, psychological problems) and define the lines of argument: Overcoming feelings of loneliness, introducing responsible everyday behavior, enabling the establishment and maintenance of social contacts outside of the drug scene on the subject of 'dog'.

Without such new contacts, the final breakaway from the drug scene is unlikely. The exchange in the park on the subject of 'dogs' improves both social and communicative competence. Although the acquisition of a dog seems technically justifiable and sensible, Gabis should not be promised anything: There is no guarantee and it may take a long time but should try Gabi allows you to obtain a statement from the attending physician that the application is supported for medical and therapeutic reasons, because with the expected improvement in joie de vivre and independence, as well as the indirectly growing self-confidence, the healing would be accelerated and in the long term the ability to work would be regained.

The headline on the application to the Social Welfare Office for Acquisition, Tax and Maintenance must be: 'Application according to §72 BSHG', because otherwise it would be interpreted as an application for one-off benefits and immediately rejected. The above-mentioned keywords must then be linked in a continuous text form, the costs for dog tax, maintenance and purchase should be determined in advance and indicated directly. The therapist's statement is then mentioned in the cover letter under 'Attachments' and Gabi signs everything. If necessary, Gabi also signs a confidentiality declaration for any feedback from the social welfare office. In the objection procedure - although only after 12 weeks and 2 phone calls - the application was approved. The hoped-for effect occurred and Gabi is now also seen beyond the drug scene, as competent help with 'dog problems.'

Finally, one more fact must be clarified once again: If we put ourselves in the shoes of our clients, it is about 'understanding' their behavior or their subjective motivations and not 'understanding' in the sense of a morally positive assessment of their behavior. In the colloquial sense, these terms are close to each other, in a professional context they are worlds apart. Precisely because we also often consider the behavior to be unacceptable, we are stuck in a dilemma similar to that of lawyers, who have to put their loyalty on the part of the accused. Even in the case of criminal offenses, the pre-democratic idea of ​​atonement is no longer in the foreground, but the idea of ​​rehabilitation. This is not possible without knowledge of the motive; without this there is no evidence of preventive intervention with regard to other potential repeat offenders. So if we want to find starting points to generally reduce the likelihood of capital offenses, for example, it does not help to detain the individual perpetrator for longer or to spark the debate about the death penalty. This alone helps the emotional balance of the victims affected or those who consider themselves to be such. We need to understand how such behavior occurs in order to counteract repetition.

The public, political and scientific debate about tougher or earlier penalties stimulated by the media does not serve in any way for objective general security, but only for the profiling interests of individuals. In the case of, for example, sexual, bodily harm, killing or right-wing extremist crimes, the principle of having to be aware of one's personal motivations as a social educator is a major challenge. It is not easy to meet this challenge; not least because there is little understanding for this in private. Nevertheless, the loyalty to the clientele must not be terminated, not even if we are working with the perpetrator.We quickly become the target of attacks from all sides with varying degrees of intensity; because if you want to explain the behavior causally, you logically bring up the societal fragments of causation; E.g. Political failure in the preventive fields of youth, health, social affairs, school, urban planning, housing. Since society has little interest in being held up in a mirror, it is easy for social educators to be discriminated against in this field of work; sometimes even criminalized. To get to the point again: We show no understanding for the crime, but we want to understand the perpetrator and thus reconstruct the circumstances on which the crime is based. The fact that you can swim quickly should not be concealed and illustrated by the example of three homicides. In the first case there is help, the others you can try to sort out yourself:

According to the KJHG we have clear points of orientation on how we must ensure the socialization of the children in the event of excessive demands or failure of the parents, in addition or in replacement (§1f SGB VIII):

§1 Right to education, parental responsibility, youth welfare

  • Every young person has the right to support his development and to be educated to become an independent and socially responsible personality.
  • Care and upbringing of children are the natural right of parents and their first and foremost duty. The state community watches over their activities.
  • Youth welfare should contribute to the realization of the right according to paragraph 1, in particular

1. Promote young people in their individual and social development and help to avoid or reduce disadvantages,

2. Advising and supporting parents and other legal guardians in their upbringing,

3. Protect children and young people from dangers to their well-being,

4. contribute to maintaining or creating positive living conditions for young people and their families as well as a child and family-friendly environment.

In the case of 'deviant behavior', the individual, the family, but also the youth welfare service, which did not do justice to its task, must be held responsible, at least in equal proportions. The victims are looked after by other institutions, including professional colleagues, than the perpetrators. If the perpetrators are the addressees of social work, then 'the victim side of the perpetrators' is not put into focus as an excuse, but as an explanation. Starting from this side, alternative legitimate and legal conflict resolution options are conveyed. This 'victim side of the perpetrator' becomes clear e.g. in the second part of a newspaper article: By DOREEN BEILKE and MARKUS.SCHMIDT (picture by ??)

"When asked about his childhood, he whines for pity: 'My stepfather hit me when I was little. With leather straps and shoes whenever he was drunk. My mother had cancer, she died early. My stepfather gave up "I blamed me for her death. I. often fled to relatives. But then father came and beat me up in front of her. Then he drove the car to my home, I had to walk. Already with." 9 I had to buy alcohol for father. ' The defendant said about his youth: "At some point I came to the home in Eberswalde. After the 6th grade I finished school, went to construction. I was given notice over and over again." How did he become a criminal? "I stole cars and all that. I'm a loner. I struck even when someone told me to shut up. With alcohol, I get angry and freak out." The judge: 'When did you first have sex?' The defendant: 'At 17. Her name was Sabrina and she was 14. We were engaged. I was together with my last girlfriend until three weeks before the crime. If she was in pain, then we didn't have sex, because I only have sex, if both want that. I also often borrowed porn films. But I'm ashamed to talk about sex. ' The defendant claims to have been molested as a child. "

In the first part of the newspaper article, the focus is on the victim side. From the point of view of social work, some needs for help have become clear in the past. In this case, these are not to be negated even if the young man makes himself liable to prosecution.

"His anklets clink over the gray linoleum, his hands are handcuffed. Child murderer Stefan Jahn (25) on the way to the courtroom. He looks at the floor, is too cowardly to look his victim's parents in the eyes. On February 22nd This man kidnapped the 12-year-old Ulrike. He tied her up, tortured her. He raped her. Then he strangled the girl with a scarf, threw the corpse into the undergrowth. Two weeks later, the dead child was found, the murderer was quickly caught. (.. .) "We have to judge an extremely tragic event. It is about the death of Ulrike Brandt, who brought immeasurable suffering to the family and deeply affected the population. We will solve this crime and find a just punishment." '"

Another article on the same connection makes the ambivalence clearer: In: 'Magdeburger Volksstimme' from 13.7.01.

"Then: Execute, lock up, exterminate? Or better therapy? How should one deal with those sick who rape and kill children? The desire for revenge is understandable, the hope for retribution is human. But what is justice? An eye for an eye and A tooth for a tooth or would you prefer democratic indulgence? All of these questions are directed towards the next. No prison cell or death sentence can bring a child back. No life sentence can alleviate the pain of parents. It can protect others, but is that really the solution "Is that really a deterrent? We discuss the consequences without considering the causes. Undoubtedly, it is difficult, if not impossible, to explore a sick mind. But you may be able to recognize it. When everyone looks, when we all start a little more." To take responsibility. Before it's too late. "

Another case can be used to problematize the connection between 'understanding' and 'understanding'. In: 'TAZ' from 08/14/2001.

"He just felt he was being managed. Engineer B. was active in the unemployment movement, wrote texts on the Internet - he has to be jailed for twelve years for manslaughter on the employment office director K. The victim's son does not understand the search for the motive for the crime. Twelve years Prison for manslaughter, this is the verdict of the regional court of B. yesterday. The engineer, who had been unemployed for nine years, killed the director of the employment office on February 6 of this year - in front of his house with 28 stitches in the head. B. was charged with He had decided to kill K. 'as a symbol for the employment office and society as a whole, in order to send a signal.' That was how prosecutor G. put it at the beginning of the trial. Yesterday the prosecutor demanded a prison sentence of 13 years - B. have consciously exploited the defenselessness of his victim.

But the court ruled out maliciousness. After breaking off further training - he just felt 'parked, managed' - the 46-year-old defendant had his unemployment benefit cut. Instead of more than 2,000 marks, he would have had to get by on welfare benefits only 540 marks - and that where his daughter was just born. The relationship was long since broken, but he felt financially responsible. That morning he asked the director of the employment office to lift the ban. When K. refused - he pushed B. back - B. stabbed. On three days of the trial, the court tried to get an idea of ​​the defendant. B. was involved in the German and French unemployment movement and published texts on the Internet.

After the attack by a welfare recipient on an employee of the Hamburg social welfare office, B. had announced a text 'from the psychological economy of killing'. In court, acquaintances from the unemployed movement, but also employees of the employment office, described how they had experienced B.: as always polite people who apparently came under increasing pressure in the last few months before the crime. B., who had an IQ of 143, had 'no relationships of a constant nature or of a more uncomplicated nature,' said psychiatric assessor Dr. C. and saw the reasons for this in B.'s childhood, in boarding school life and in the parents' divorce. In the course of his unemployment, B. took more and more personally - for example, he thought the sloppiness of his documents in the employment office was a grueling tactic and the sudden discovery. A 'narcissistic personality with schizoid-paranoid accents', according to the reviewer.

Instead of looking for a solution, he attested that the defendant remained in the victim's position. All of this found its 'unfortunate climax' in the relationship with his girlfriend, a woman whom B. described to the expert as 'hysterical, stingy, jealous'. (...) An 'affective traffic jam' had discharged, possibly triggered by K.'s rejection. (...) Expert C. spoke of a 'profound disturbance of consciousness' during the crime, and he could not rule out a reduced culpability. C. thought it was 'rather unlikely' that B. planned the act. B.'s defense attorney M .. The widow and the adult son of the dead man had previously ruled out that the official director actually pushed the defendant back. 'My husband would never have touched him, he was very introverted', I. had previously told the court. (... The son) has nothing but contempt for the intensity with which B.'s motives were researched. For him, B. is someone who has never succeeded in anything in his life. Except for the killing of K..A French friend distributed leaflets in front of the court saying: 'Social logic is criminal here.' "

V. had a man killed who humiliated, insulted, beat and abused her - her own husband. A Lesson on Domestic Violence ': A' woman who wants to get rid of her husband forever should not kill him. (...) Seven years ago she had her husband W. killed by hired killers. (...) At that time she paid 50,000 marks to end the marriage with horror. (...) The first projectile entered below the nose and left in front of the ear. The second shot hit the left collarbone, went through the lungs, and kicked out in the back. The third bullet ended up as a bullet to the eighth rib after injuring the diaphragm, liver, stomach and inferior vena cava. The fourth projectile penetrated the muscles of the central abdomen. W. died at the age of 49 while still in the ambulance. (...) V. lets himself be yelled at because she put the eggs into the pot from the left, 'the wrong side', because there is a piece of paper in the yard or the light is on in the toilet. She can be titled bitch, asshole, pissnot, hooker, pig, stupid cow and spit on. In front of the children. She lets herself be slapped, the food tipped in front of her feet and pots thrown at her. She allows herself to be threatened, controlled by cell phone and abide by it when she is forbidden to go out. It can be pulled on the arm's hair when sexual intercourse is desired. She panics when an ashtray goes down and smashes a tile. She is powerless if the man is the 'little U.' summoned to the humiliation of the mother, so that he can see 'how to deal with such a pig mother.' She allows him to fling her onto the kitchen bench and twist her sweater around her neck so tightly that she doesn't breathe.

Several sweaters come to an end in this way. (...) Every day there is 'theater', if not in the morning, then at noon, if not at noon, then in the evening. Nobody, nobody sets limits to the tyrant. Sometimes V. replies. But she never wins a duel, in the end she turns around every time and flees the conflict. He screamed afterwards. If she grabs the kitchen knife to defend herself, W. exclaims, “Before you stab, I'll grab one for you, and then it will be dark.” You won't come from the yard! You come into the pond with a pavement slab on your foot 'or:' I'll get you shot, it'll cost me 10,000 marks - and a smile. ' 'Be careful not to get ahead of you,' she says. A ridiculous threat of consumptive joke. (...) V. flees. Once, a hundred times. Hides with friends, can be found, returns home. It starts a refrain that can be sung in every women's shelter and at every police station and political commission that deals with domestic violence. An overflowing urge to dominate, to terrorize, drives the woman out, an insatiable tendency to make herself small, to submit, to go home, as soon as the hematomas fade. (...) Men are the curse in their lives. (...)

She grew up in St. Pauli, between brothels and bars. She sees the 'beggar girls' standing on the roadside, cut low and dressed up to the point of ridiculousness. At home, too, she is taught what a woman is worth. The father, a waiter in amusement shops, beats his mother when he comes home drunk. The child 'V' wipes the mother's blood off the tiles on the kitchen wall. Later on, the child no longer sleeps when there is a threat of flogging. When the father returns home in the early hours of the morning, his little daughter crouches next to him at the kitchen table and 'gently stroked his hand with one finger until he fell asleep'. The monster is appeased. For this time. The mother escapes. Once, a hundred times. The father finds her, sometimes with the help of the police. (...) The family is so depressed that they have to live in emergency shelters. The mother manages to take off because she finds a friend; he hangs himself, now she drinks too. V. has to drop out of elementary school, she has to give up work at Woolworth. (...) The court did not believe the statement that she did not dare to break up because she feared for her life. W. was thought to be a screamer, a barking dog. That he threatened V. - sometimes quite casually - with death, that he had good friends in St. Pauli who would certainly have asked less than 50,000 marks - the judges did not accept any of that ... " In: ' The time 'from 06/26/01.

Results of the anamnesis:

Often referred to as a contract between clients, social pedagogues and providers, sometimes even fixed in writing, the agreement on further cooperation is the central result of the anamnesis. Before the collaboration became more formal, we asked ourselves and the clients honestly whether we could and would like to work with one another. We don't have to 'love' all clients. If there is no substitute, it may even make sense to honestly tell your clients that you don't like them, that you don't expect to be liked yourself, that you earn your money one way or another, that you don't want your own good depends on the progress of the clients, they won't get another social worker, they don't even have to try to make life difficult for you because they lose out anyway, that there is no other way and you just have to make the best of it .. .; You can't hide your antipathies anyway. We have also made sure that our offer of help in terms of content, methodology and didactics is differentiated from other fields of social work as well as other professional fields necessaryand sufficientis: With every intervention, the question of its necessity must be carefully justified, taking into account the nature of interference with the personal self-determination of the client or the family, or the right of parents to raise as little as possible. An intervention is sufficient if it offers reasonable hope of success; other measures of lower intensity do not promise success, but the intensity does not have to be increased in order to justify hope. Logically, the first question is whether it is a question of a socio-educational problem constellation; To do this, it must also be clarified at the beginning whether you are dealing with the right addressee. The outlined facts can be illustrated using the BSP of social group work as a form of 'educational assistance' according to §29 KJHG. If a mother comes to us with her 14 year old daughter and asks for help in solving their problems, it remains open at first whether we should do it:

  • Did she get worse at school and started coming home late drunk, while at the same time she had to take the toddler into her room in the narrow apartment, she was woken up again and again at night and was no longer allowed to listen to music in the room after 7 p.m. The stepfather sits in the living room with whom she does not get along. Social pedagogues should first try to improve the living situation (housing benefit, social assistance) and make other leisure activities of open youth work according to §11 KJHG (youth club, youth recreation) attractive to the girl. With §29 KJHG, the parenting competence of the mother would be called into question in an expert opinion and on record; and that is probably not necessary ...
  • Does the child havebruises and declares in a later one-on-one conversation to be beaten and sexually abused by the stepfather, social group work will not offer sufficient protection, the method of group work seems inadequate, at least at the beginning, and removal from the family or home care seem inevitable. Social help is necessary, but social group work is not sufficient to cope with the problematic situation; the interest of the youth welfare office in the cheapest possible help according to §29 must be countered. If the socio-educational accommodation is ensured by 'our' colleagues, we must also consider the extent to which we should involve other professions: police and public prosecutor's office for physical and sexual abuse (also because of the small child), psychotherapeutic help for the child to cope with the trauma, legal support of the child...
  • If the daughter weighs 114 kilos, is wet at night, is teased and spanked by the classmates and last week cut her wrists and just left the hospital, should we bring the child into contact with child and adolescent psychiatry, spontaneous fears about this institution and gladly explain honestly that social pedagogues are overwhelmed with such problems, they should come back later after clarifying the dominant problems. Even though there is often no denying the stimulus to solve therapeutic problems yourself, we let it be! We always have to check whether we are up to the mandate that has been given to us. If we have accepted it, we suggest a solvability that may overwhelm the clients, our colleagues and ourselves, relieve other actors of their causal responsibility, and possibly further encourage donors in their savings efforts ...
  • Mother and daughter have been arguing for a week because the mother hit the child once, locked her at home, cut off contact with friends and the youth club, read the daughter's diary and broke her favorite CD after the daughter was caught smoking the daughter should be included in the group, if possible, offer her a shelter from her mother ...; however, identify the mother as the addressee of the intervention ...

As long as these questions have not been clarified, the socio-educational mandate is subject to change and the start of the actual intervention requires final legitimation. Ambiguity between those involved, especially between the social workers and the clients, creates trust and communication problems, is reflected in friction and energy losses and significantly reduces the likelihood of success.

In addition to these formal aspects of the anamnesis, the content must be outlined: You have agreed which problems are present, which actors are involved, your own resources are determined exactly as those who are in the social environment or behind the social laws and who move quickly mobilize. The different goals of the various actors are recorded and the work goals and methods are mutually agreed with the client. At the end of the anamnesis, the information is still relatively disordered, is neither assessed nor weighted against each other, you will have found many traces that do not necessarily have to be taken into account later, we are clear that there is no 'editorial deadline' for the entire help process Gives information and the client always remains an expert of himself and our suggestions can never claim the character of exclusivity or infallibility for themselves. In this respect, our interpretations are to be fed back to the client in the subsequent diagnosis. We not only have to reduce the risk of overlooking information, but also of misleading it. Cause and solution hypotheses can only guide action if there is agreement.

For the socio-educational anamnesis, Müller formulates the following working rules (1994: 82ff):

1. Anamnesis means getting to know a case like an unknown person.

2. Anamnesis means getting to know your own approach to the case better.

3. Taking a medical history means asking yourself a series of questions.

4. Anamnesis means juxtaposing different perspectives and levels of the case.

5. History is never complete. It doesn't have to be either. It starts over and over again.



Next chapter: Diagnosis