Is Koren a Jewish family name

The Schlesinger family, Albaxen

The name Schlesinger is not exactly rare among Jews and non-Jews and regularly indicates the origin of the bearers of the name from this Austrian and then Prussian region up to the 18th century. This also applies to the bearers of the name recorded in the vicinity of Höxter from around the middle of the 18th century.

Theodor Jacob Schlesinger (1727–1828), the first bearer of the name in the local area, was born in Breslau and probably moved to Westphalia around the middle of the century, where he became the Vördenerin around 1766 Jette Israel (1737–1819) married and went into her father's business in Vörden (Joseph) Nathan Israel entered, probably a hacking and trading trade. The couple had five children, all of whom apparently stayed in the local area, at least for the time being. However, the traces of the four daughters and their families are soon lost.

The youngest daughter Rosina Schlesinger (* around 1788) had with her husband, who was probably also born in Vörden Simon Nachmann Marienthal (around 1778 - 1838) five children. In the first third of the 19th century, however, they seem to have moved from here. This also applies to Rosina's sister, who probably died young Edel Schlesinger (* 1785) and the sister Reitz Schlesinger (* 1782) the 1801 from Nieheim Simon Nachmann Lebenstein (* 1777) married and had four children with him. After 1808, however, the traces of this family are also lost.

The oldest daughter Rachel Schlesinger (1767 - after 1813) married the man from Stahle Bendix Behrend Lissauer (1731–1813), who lived as a trader in Vörden. The age difference of more than 45 years suggests that Rachel was his second wife. The couple had four children, one of whom was the son Bernd Lissauer (1800–1828) in Vörden with Goldchen Herzfeld was married. Their son Bendix Lissauer (1827–1880) lived with his wife Malchen Klarenmeyer (1823-1883) in Bredenborn. Later this family is no longer recorded in the local area.

Israel Theodor Schlesinger and his children

The other descendants of the Schlesinger family go to Theodor Jacobs son Israel Theodor Schlesinger (* 1772) back. This married the Albaxerin Elkel (Emilie) Moses (* 1777) and also moved to Albaxen, where the seven children were born. Only the dates of birth of five of these children are known, and that of the daughter Therese The sources known so far only record that they are with the soap boiler manufacturer Salomon Goldschmidt (1809-1865) was married.

Calmon Schlesinger and his descendants

The tombstone for Johanne Schlesinger in the Jewish cemetery in Fürstenau, where the Albax Jews buried their dead

The name Schlesinger remained in the local area only because of the one born in Albaxen Calmon Schlesinger (* 1806) received, the grandson of the first Theodor Jacob Schlesinger. He married the one born in Warburg (probably Ossendorf) Johanne Wittgenstein (1807-1896), whose parents had lived in Höxter, and lived and worked with her as a Höker in Albaxen, where the seven children were born, but three of them died early.

Calmon Schlesinger's date of death is not yet known, but he died before 1861, because his wife Johanna is called the Hökerin "Widow Schlesinger" that year, who lives in Albaxen with her four daughters, Etkal, Mergel, Jette and Dina, who were still unmarried at the time No. 70 lived. The oldest daughter Etkal (Edel, Adelheid) (1839–1890) married the man from Löwendorf Benjamin Löwendorf (1838–1920) and lived with him in Steinheim. Their tombstones are still standing in the local Jewish cemetery today. Their numerous descendants are shown in the context of the Löwendorf family.

While Calmon Schlesinger's daughter Jette (1844–1867) died at the age of 23 is about her sister Marl (amalie) (* 1840) only known that in 1872 she bought the Ossendorfer Levi Schöttmar got married. The youngest sister Dina (1847–1940) married in 1876, who was born in Madfeld (Brilon) Isaak Jacob Silberberg (1847–1914) and had a daughter with him in addition to a son who died as an infant Sophie (1877-1942). She married after the death of her first husband from Dierbach David Seligmann 1932 the butcher, also widowed Karl Marx (1867–1940) and lived with him in Altenkirchen (Westerwald). Her mother Dina also moved to Altenkirchen after the death of her husband and died in the same year as her daughter.

Israel Schlesinger and his descendants

All the other descendants of the 'progenitor' Theodor Jacob Schlesinger had gradually moved from the area around Vörden and Albaxen, and only his great-grandson Israel Schlesinger (1842–1915), the only son of Calmon Schlesinger, continued the line here. He married his sister-in-law in 1878 Julie (Gitel) Silberberg (1852–1922) from Madfeld (Brilon) and had six children with her.

The tombstone of Israel Schlesinger, inserted today in the memorial at the Jewish cemetery in Höxter (his wife's grave has not been preserved)

Israel Schlesinger owned a grocery store and from 1901 also had a slaughterhouse. Since 1882 he was head of the Jewish community, which included the villages of Albaxen, Stahle and Lüchtringen. In January 1905 he applied to the Höxter-Albaxen office to dissolve the synagogue community, as it had only existed on paper for more than ten years. Charges for the synagogue congregation were not levied, the service no longer took place because there were too few parishioners, and the prayer rolls were supposed to be "Exposed to the risk of spoilage as a result of long-term non-use". However, the request was denied.

However, it was later approved, because after their death both Israel Schlesinger and his wife Julie were not buried in the Jewish cemetery in Fürstenau, as was usual before, but in Höxter, and their two children, David and Minna, who lived in Albaxen, visited the synagogue in Höxter.

The daughter of Israel Schlesinger's six children married Sophia (* 1884) 1909 Adolf Abraham Katz (1884) from Silexen and lived with him in Schötmar from around 1914, where the couple had their children Walter, Emmy and Wilhelm got. The family was able to emigrate to South America at the beginning of 1938, where they arrived in Buenos Aires in February 1938 with a Torah scroll that Adolf Katz had received permission to take with them.

The memorial with the name Sally Schlesinger in Albaxen

The four sons of Israel Schlesinger had to go into the field as soldiers in the First World War. The youngest son Sally Schlesinger (1885–1917) returned to the front in 1915 despite being severely wounded and fell in 1917. The plaque at the cemetery in Albaxen still reminds of him today.

Extract from the loss lists, February 22, 1916

Just like his brother had to too Louis (Ludwig) Schlesinger (* 1882), who moved to the Ruhr area (Essen?), Took part in the First World War as a soldier, where he was taken prisoner in 1916. There is no certainty about his future fate. Apparently, however, he did not fall victim to the Holocaust. He may have died married in Essen in 1931 or fled to England or the USA in the 1930s.

The eldest son Karl (Carl, Kallmann) Schlesinger (1879–1942) first learned the banking trade in a bank in Berlin and worked in the following decades as an authorized signatory of a bank in Hildesheim. In the First World War he was twice lightly wounded as a deputy sergeant. After the war he married the Berlin-born one Katharina ("Käthe" Emma) lively (1892–1966) and had their only son with her Ernst Karl (1925–2008).

The family experienced the persecution of the Third Reich. After the search of the apartment, Karl Schlesinger was arrested at the beginning of September 1938 and imprisoned for ten months for allegedly transferring money abroad. His son Ernst had to leave the grammar school shortly after the pogrom night in 1938. At the latest after the news of the murder of Karl Schlesinger's brother David, who lived in Albaxen, on the night of the pogrom, the family knew that they had to flee Germany.

In order to sell his house in Hldesheim, Karl Schlesinger turned to a colonial merchant in Albaxen, who had already taken over his sister Minna's stock there at a fair price and from whom he knew that he would also expect a fair price from him for the house could. However, the latter had to refuse because he could not afford the sum, but at least bought the bedroom and furniture for around 4,000 RM.

Left Karl Schlesinger with his son Ernst and his wife Katharina as well as other refugees after their arrival in Seattle, "The Seattle Sunday Times", 4.8.1940

However, they did not manage to emigrate until the beginning of July 1940 after they had received the visa for the USA. However, the flight across the Atlantic was too dangerous because of the ongoing war events at sea, and so they chose an unusual route. From Germany they first drove to Moscow (which was still possible because of the Hitler-Stalin Pact) and then, after several days of train journey via Siberia and Korea, they took a ship to Japan, from where they took a ship to Seattle a month after leaving Germany brought in the US.

Local committee chairman Elmar Düker with Ernst Schlesinger and his wife and daughter in front of the former Schlesinger house in Albaxen, OWZ 14.6.2003

Karl Schlesinger died in Seattle in 1942 two years after arriving in the USA. His son Ernst, Ernest C. Schlesinger in the USA, studied mathematics and philosophy in Washington and was later professor of mathematics at various American universities. In 2003, on a visit to Hildesheim, he also came to Albaxen, where his ancestors had lived, and visited the family's former home. There is a lot of information about him and his family, among other things through his contact with his former school in Hildesheim. See, among other things, a specialist work that was created in Hildesheim and other sources mentioned there.

Unlike the other sons, Israel raised Schlesinger's second son David (1880–1938) did not leave, but entered the parents' mixed and manufactured goods store, the only store of its kind in Albaxen. Like his brothers, he was drafted in the First World War and worked there as a medic. His father died during this time, and so David Schlesinger took over together with his sister Minna (* 1889) started the business in the still existing half-timbered house at Saumerweg 3 and continued it into the Third Reich. Both remained unmarried.

The former Schlesinger house in Albaxen, Saumerweg 3

In addition to his business activities, David Schlesinger took care of the emergency medical service in the village as a medic during the First World War and, in addition to textiles and household items in his “drug cabinet”, also kept drugs in his shop. Contemporaries describe him as "the epitome of helpfulness". “There was a good relationship of trust between him and the village. If you were in need and you didn't have the necessary money, you could send him a letter. "

Anni Crämer: "I always did what others didn't want to do ...", p. 104f

Up until the November pogrom in 1938, David and Minna Schlesinger were able to run the business, the only one of its kind in Albaxen, without any major problems. On the night of 9/10 In November 1938, David was taken out of bed by two SA men from Höxter and transported to Höxter in an open bucket car in underwear. Covered in blood and unconscious, he arrived at the town hall, whose cellar served as a prison and where the already imprisoned doctor Dr. Frankenberg could only arrange for his transport to the hospital. There he died in the morning around 11 o'clock, cause of death: skull base fracture "as a result of an accident". He was buried in the Jewish cemetery in Höxter.

The tombstone for David Schlesinger in the Jewish cemetery in Höxter

Investigations and trials from 1946 dragged on until 1961 without the cause of death being provably clarified. The SA men who picked up Schlesinger testified in a trial before the Paderborn Regional Court that he jumped out of the car on the way to Höxter near the Weinbergkapelle and sustained the fatal injuries.

Police major P. reported, however, at the trial: “There was a rumor in town that the team that brought the Schlesinger from Albaxen actually threw the Schlesinger down on the way, so that he was thrown into a tree and died of the injuries . The rumor didn't seem unfounded to me. ”In the end, only the former NSDAP local group leader was punished for serious deprivation of liberty. The sentence was considered to have been served because of the previous internment and pre-trial detention.

However, the rumor persists up to the present day that Schlesinger was pushed by the Kübelwagen or that he was straddled the bonnet of the Kübelwagen by the SA men and then thrown from his unsafe seat when he made deliberate dangling movements and was fatally injured in the fall been.

His sister Minna (* 1889) stayed in Albaxen alone. At the end of 1938, her grocery and manufactured goods business was Aryanized, and she received a price of around RM 15,000 for the inventory from another Albax colonial merchant, estimated by a Jewish and an 'Aryan' appraiser, which was also assessed as fair in the restitution negotiations after the war . For a long time this family, which also ran the post office in Albaxen, supported Minna Schlesinger with groceries when she picked up her newspaper from them.

Memories of a contemporary witness from Albaxen, New Westphalian, 9.11.1988

The house with barn and about three acres of land became the property of the German Reich. Apparently, Minna Schlesinger was allowed to stay in the house for the time being, probably even after she was reported by the mayor in November 1940 as being “fully capable of work”. Whether and where she was used is not known, nor is the time of the auction of her household items, her laundry and other things from the house, about which a contemporary witness reports (see opposite). In March 1942, at the age of 53, she was picked up by the Gestapo as part of the “final solution” for “work in the east” and deported to Warsaw on March 31, 1942, from where she sent a card. A soldier from Albaxen later saw her working on a railway line near Lemberg (now Lviv, formerly Lwów) in what is now Ukraine, but did not dare to speak to her. In 1952 Minna Schlesinger was officially declared dead.

Fritz Ostkämper, February 6, 2017
e-mail: [email protected]