Which alleles are neither dominant nor recessive
For the expression of the trait in an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, at least one dominant allele (A) must appear in the genotype.
(1) and (2) are homozygous or heterozygous for the corresponding trait, so they are both affected. Because of their mother (1), their children (5) and (6) can only be bearers of characteristics. She always inherits at least one dominant allele, so the genotype of the father does not matter.
In contrast, the children of (3) and (4) can be quite healthy, since the mother (3) has two healthy alleles and the father (4) has one healthy allele. As long as the dominant allele of the father (4) is left out, healthy children will always be homozygous (aa -> 7 & 9) and sick children will be heterozygous (Aa -> 8). Within an autosomal dominant inheritance, all healthy persons can always be genotypically clearly identified with (aa)! As a result, the children of parents (9) and (10) are also without exception healthy, because if no parent carries the characteristic, it cannot be inherited.
In the case of the offspring of (6) and (7), chance again decides whether or not they carry traits. Either the father (6) inherits the dominant or the recessive gene. In the first case the child is sick (11), in the second case homozygous and healthy (12).
What indicates an autosomal dominant inheritance?
Characteristic carriers can be found in almost every generation
Women and men are affected in a similar ratio
If a child is positive for the trait, it is also a parent
Examples of autosomal dominant inheritance: Huntington's disease, Marfan's syndrome, neurofibromatosis, polydactyly (multiple fingers)
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