Which metal and non-metal make salts


In everyday parlance, the term salt means table salt, which plays a major role in the household. In chemistry, substances are called Salts which are made up of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions and, in the solid state, form an ion bond and form an ion lattice. By this definition, most inorganic solids are salts. The salts include, for example, the carbonates, the chlorides, the nitrates, the phosphates or the sulfates. They occur in nature in great numbers in the minerals and often form beautifully shaped crystals.



Halides can be produced in the laboratory by the direct reaction of a metal with a halogen. If iron wool is burned in chlorine, brown iron chloride is formed under the appearance of fire. If aluminum is allowed to react with bromine, the salt aluminum bromide is created in a small fireworks display. The reaction of sodium in chlorine gives sodium chloride.

 
Reaction of metals with halogens







Sodium reacts with chlorine to form the salt sodiumchloride.

Iron wool reacts with chlorine to form the salt ironchloride.

Aluminum reacts with bromine to form the salt aluminumbromide.
 
 

Reaction of metals with oxygen and sulfur






Magnesium reacts with oxygen
to magnesiumoxide.

Iron reacts with oxygen
to ironoxide.

Zinc reacts with sulfur
to zincsulfide.


When metals or their oxides react with acids, the corresponding salt of the acid is always formed. For example, chlorides are obtained from the reaction of a metal with hydrochloric acid. Sulphates are formed when reacting with sulfuric acid. The corresponding nitrates are obtained with nitric acid.
 

Metals and metal oxides react with acids






Sodium reacts with hydrochloric acid to form sodiumchloride with the formation of hydrogen.

Copper (II) oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid to copper (II) -chloride with formation of water.

Copper reacts with nitric acid to form copper (II) -nitrate and brown nitrogen dioxide.


Some salts are approved as food additives. They taste salty or salty to bitter. Other salts such as potassium cyanide or arsenic (III) oxide, on the other hand, have a very toxic effect. There are even salts that are explosive, for example the salts of picric acid. The most important acids and their salts are listed here:

  


Salt formation reactions

Salts are formed when positively charged cations and negatively charged anions are delivered in a chemical reaction. Alcohols and phenols, as well as many other organic substances, can also form salts. These reactions are not listed here. A typical reaction is always given as an example for the general reaction scheme:


1. Reaction of two elements: Sodium reacts with chlorine

Metal + non-metal salt
2 Na + Cl2 2 Well+ + 2 cl


2. Base metal reacts with acid: Sodium reacts with hydrochloric acid
 
Base metal + acid Salt + hydrogen
2 Na + 2 HCl(aq) 2 Well+ + 2 cl + H2


3. Metal oxide reacts with acid: Copper (II) oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid
 
Metal oxide + acid Salt + water
CuO + 2 HCl(aq)   Cu2+ + 2 cl + H2O


4. Neutralization of acid and base: hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide solution

Acid + lye Salt + water
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) N / A+ + Cl + H2O


5. Non-metal oxide reacts with caustic solution: Carbon dioxide reacts with caustic soda solution

Non-metal oxide + lye Salt + water
CO2 + 2 NaOH(aq) 2 Well+ + CO3 2- + H2O


6. Salt reacts with acid: Sodium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid

Salt + stronger acid Stronger Acid Salt + Weaker Acid
N / A2CO3 + 2 HCl(aq) 2 Well+ + 2 cl + H2CO3

This reaction occurs when the acid that reacts with the salt is stronger than the acid from which the salt was formed. In this example, hydrochloric acid is the stronger acid than carbonic acid; it is more protolyzed in aqueous solution. If a gaseous, volatile acid is formed as a reaction product from the salt and a non-volatile acid, this reaction is preferred:
 
Salt + acid Acid salt + volatile acid
2 NaCl + H2SO4(aq) 2 Well+ + SO4 2 + 2 HCl


7. Ion exchange between salts: chloride detection with silver nitrate

Salt AB + Salt CD Salt CB poorly soluble + salt AD
NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) Ag+(s) + Cl(s) + Well+(aq) + NO3(aq)


The reaction takes place when one of the two salts formed is sparingly soluble and precipitates out as a precipitate (s). A double salt can also be formed from two salts according to the reaction scheme AB + CB reacts to ACB.



additional Information

 
Experiments with oxygen and oxidations
Experiments with halogens
Ions and ionic bonding
Lexicon of Inorganic Salts
Sulfide reactions
 


Create a book individually: Basic text salts

  

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