Why did Portugal enter World War I.

The First World War at a glance

compiled by C.M.V. Abegglen (1996)

 

1. War participant

States not participating in the war: Holland, Switzerland, Spain, Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

 

country

formative prehistory

Alliance side

entry into the war

(promised spoils of war)

Politician

Military

Fronts and Trp contingents

Austria-Hungary

  • Multi-ethnic state afflicted by internal turmoil (desire for self-determination of its peoples).
  • Assassination of the heir to the throne Franz Ferdinand (proponent of an expansion of the dualism of Austria-Hungary into an Austria-Hungary-Serbia triad) on June 28, 2014 in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip (19-year-old Bosnian Serb).
  • The attack was seen by the Foreign Minister and Chief of Staff as an opportunity to show Serbia the master.
centralUltimatum to Serbia: Jul 23, 1914.

28.7 1914: Declaration of war on Serbia

Franz Josef

Berchtold (Foreign Minister)

Conrad von Hötzendorf(Chief of staff)Italy

Serbia

Romania

Eastern Front

Serbia

  • 1911 Founding of the great Serbian secret organization 'Vereinigung oder Tod' (Black Hand).
  • Victory over the Turks in 1st Balkan War 1912 and strengthened by Russia.
  • 2nd Balkan War 1913: Bulgaria attacks Serbia. Serbia is supported by Romania, Greece, Montenegro and Turkey! In the Peace of Bucharest, Albania becomes independent and Greece receives the coastal areas of Thrace, which denies Serbia access to both the Adriatic and the Aegean and thus thwarted the dream of a Greater Serbia.
EntenteMob: Jul 25, 1914  Serbia

Portugal

 Entente    

Greece

 Entente King Constatin

Venizolos (PM)

 Saloniki

 

country

formative prehistory

Alliance side

entry into the war

(promised spoils of war)

Politician

Military

Fronts and Trp contingents

Russia

  • Interests in the Balkans: Securing access to the Adriatic Sea and the straits of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles: Support for the Slavic peoples (Pan-Slavism) under Austrian rule: Serbia, Ukrainians, Poles resp. Turkish rule: Bulgaria.
    Aim:
    Preservation of the political equilibrium in Europe, in that Turkey should be thrown out of Europe (2 Balkan wars between 1912 and 1913) and Austria should be weakened morally and thus Germany.
Entente7/29/14: TMob; 30.7. AMob because TMob is impossible for technical reasons.Niklaus II (abdication on March 15, 2017 [spring revolution]

Sazonoff (Foreign Minister)

Sukhomlinov (Minister of War)

Interim government after the Spring Revolution:

Kerensky (PM)

Yanushkevich(Chief of staff)

Brusilov (from 3/15/17 [Spring Revolution] Commander-in-Chief)

Eastern Front

Caucasus

Mesopotamia

Turkey

  • The Ottoman Empire was heavily wooed from both sides (Central Powers and Entente Powers):

The strategic importance of Turkey lies in their mastery of the Strait (Dardanelles), which connects the Black Sea with the Mediterranean, and in its large one territorial expansion.

Russia (Black Sea Fleet) and above all Austria were dependent on Turkey's favor so that they could get access to the Atlantic via the Mediterranean.

Great Britain (Arab region: crude oil, raw materials, Suez Canal) and Russia (access to warm waters: Red Sea and / or Indian Ocean or via the Balkans: access to the Adriatic) were also forced to have good relations with the Middle East because of the area of ​​interest Entertain Turkey.

  • When Turkey mobilized on August 2nd, 2014, GB requisitioned 2 warships under English construction for the Turkish Navy, whereupon Germany sent 2 warships (Breslau, Goeben) to Constantinople as replacements.
  • On October 29, 1914, a Turkish squadron under German Kdo penetrated the Black Sea and bombarded the Russian ports of Odessa, Sebastopol and Theodosia.
centralNov 2, 1914 declares Russia, on 5.11. France and Britain waged war on Turkey.Enver Pasha (Minister of War)Liman from Sanders (Commander in chief)

General Bronsart von Schellendorf (Chief of staff)

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

Trp:

1st Army (Constantinople and Gallipoli)

2nd Army (Coastal area of ​​Asia Minor)

3rd Army (Caucasus)

2 div (in Yemen, Mesopotamia, Hejaz)

Gallipoli

Caucasus (Baku oil fields)

Palestine

Arabia

Mesopotamia

 

country

formative prehistory

Alliance side

entry into the war

(promised spoils of war)

Politician

Military

Fronts and Trp contingents

Germany

  • late agreement in the year 1870/71 In the course of the enthusiasm for the Franco-German War: after the wars 1864 (with Oe vs. Denmark: Schleswig-Holstein to Prussia and Oe), 1866 (Prussia vs. Oe and Saxony: formation of the North German Confederation 1866/67): after 3 victorious armed conflicts all the more eager nationalism and all more pervasive militarism
  • lagging industrialization, population growth and economic growth leave after the era of Bismarck paired with the writings of Mahan (1840-1914) 'The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783' (1890) as well as those of Friedrich von Bernhardi With his imperialist view of the world, which reflects the natural law of survival of the fittest (social Darwinism) during war, Wilhelm II strive for an increase in power and a redistribution of power as well as for world recognition. To this end: Development of the (war and trade) fleet (Navalism) and striving for German colonies (Morocco 1904: Panther's leap to Agadir), whereby the cake was already distributed between GB and Fr (imperialism).
    Result:
    The alliance system under Bismarck (1879 Dual Alliance, 1881-1887 Three imperial alliances, 1882 Triple Alliance (from 1883 including Romania), 1887 secret security treaty with Russia and Mediterranean duck), which had the goal of isolating France, consolidating the German nation as a European middle power and preventing a possible two-front war by rapprochement with Russia, was reversed into the opposite: Wilhelm II's policy of the sanded fist drove unequal couples into the same bed: Ms. , GB, R vs. D, Oe.
  • territorial ambitions in the east: western provinces of Poland and the Baltic coastal areas: widening of the Kiel Canal as a connecting road for the war fleet between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea.
  • Support (military and economic [railway construction]) of all Muslim peoples, but especially Turkey.
  • Loyalty to the Nibelung: Assurance of Germany's unconditional loyalty to the alliance if Russia intervenes in a war against Serbia: 5.7.14
centralAug 1, 1914: AMob and declaration of war on Russia as well as invasion of Luxembourg and France on 2.8. and ultimatum to Belgium: Schlieffenplan triggered.

Aug 3, 1914: Declaration of war on Fr.

Trp:

Western front

Wilhelm II

Bethmann-Hollweg (Chancellor)

von Tirpitz (State Secretary Fleet)

German General Staff permeated by Moltke's (the elder's) strategic ideas: (Preventive War; Schlieffen Plan)

Moltke the younger (until November 1914 Chief of Staff)

Admiral von Müller(Fleet)

Falkenhayn (from Nov. 1914 successor to Moltke and at the same time until Aug. 1916 [Verdun] Kdt Western Front; then until the end of the war Kdt 9th Army [Caucasus] and 10th Army [Lithuania]

Prittwitz (Kdt 8th Army to Vtg East Prussia against R)

Hindenburg(Successor of Prittwitz as Kdt 8th Army (August 22, 2014); then successor to Falkenhayn as Kdt Western Front)

Ludendorff(8th Army Chief of Staff)

Western front

Eastern Front

Palestine

(West / East) Africa

 

country

formative prehistory

Alliance side

entry into the war

(promised spoils of war)

Politician

Military

Fronts and Trp contingents

Great Britain

  • As a world power, it dominated the most important sea routes through its numerous ports and colonies, which were developed as bases at strategically important points: Suez Canal (Egypt, parts of Somalia), Kaprouten (South Africa and Falkland Islands). As a world trading power and sea nation, GB represented free trade and liberalism: Norman Angell (1909) as a representative of the idealistic-anarchic worldview: from rivalry to cooperation. Increasing interdependence due to the globalization of the economy and modernity leads to the civilization of peoples and the insight that war is a game of negative sums.
  • GB represented economic interests in the Middle East, Mesopotamia (oil, homeland for Jews) and South Africa (gold) as well as in the Far East (Asia).
  • until 1902 policy of Splendid isolation (not least because of the Boer War in 1899), then involvement in European continental politics (for fear of competition): Two power standard.
  • 1904 Entente Cordiale with France and consequently mediation in disputed colony issues with France: England receives Egypt; France Morocco.
  • the Sinn Fein ('We-We') party, founded in 1905, organized the 1912 national uprising in Ireland; only the outbreak of world war obscures the danger of civil war.
EntenteAug 4, 1914: Declaration of war on Germany

12.8.: Declaration of war on Oe

King George V

Asquith (PM)

Gray (Foreign Minister)

Lloyd George (from 1916 PM)

Churchill (First Lord of the Admiralty)

Kitchener (Minister of War, drowned in 1916 when the ship was sinking while crossing to Russia)

French (1914 to Dec. 1915 Kdt BEF)

Haig (Successor to French)

Ink pen (Pioneer of the use of mechanized Vb; Planner of the first Pz Ag in history in the Battle of Cambrai 1917; Conception 'Plan 1919': creation of a Pz Army)

Western front

Senussi

Palestine

Arabia

Mesopotamia

Gallipoli

Saloniki

Intervention in Northern Russia

Persia

 

country

formative prehistory

Alliance side

entry into the war

(promised spoils of war)

Politician

Military

Fronts and Trp contingents

France

  • had to surrender Alsace-Lorraine to Germany because of the defeat in 1871, in addition to war repairs.
  • French General Staff draws the lesson from the Franco-German War (1870/71) that the offensive is always superior to the defensive based on forts. In addition, the psychological superiority lies in the offensive, which only does justice to the French ésprit: L'offensive à l'outrance (inspired by Colonel Ardant du Picq's 'Etude sur le combat', in which the value of the moral factor in war is exaggerated).
  • By occupying Tunisia in 1881, France drove Italy into the dual alliance with Germany and Austria-Habsburg, which was concluded in 1879: 1882 Triple Alliance.
  • After Bismarck's dismissal in 1890, France, alarmed by the offensive rhetoric and politics of Wilhelm II, entered negotiations with Russia in 1893: the 2 opposing alliances were born.
EntenteMob: 7/30/1914

12.8.: Declaration of war on Oe

Trp:

Sordet; 3 div

3 div

3 div

Poincaré (President)

Clémenceau (successor to Poincaré from Nov. 1917)

Joffre (Plan XVII: based on the assumption that Germany would not violate Belgian neutrality!); Commander in chief until the end of the Somme Offensive in 1916.

Level (Commander in Chief from late 1916 to May 1917)

Pétain(Commander in Chief from May 1917)

Foch (Concept of l'offensive à l'outrance); strategic thinker, Kdt XX Corps, later responsible for coordinating the allied forces in the north.

Western front

Gallipoli

Saloniki

Italy

Declaring itself as neutral at the beginning of the war, Italy waits to see which party will turn out to be the most likely successful one before intervening in the war itself:

Austria's defeats on the eastern front, in particular the case of the Przemysl fortress (March 22, 2015) was interpreted as Austrian weakness and Italy saw the chance to claim their demands (Adriatic coast, South Tyrol, Dolomites).

EntenteApr. 26, 1915: Declaration of war on Austria General Cadorna(Commander in chief)

General Diaz (replaces Cadorna from March 1918)

Italy

Bulgaria

With the offensive in the Balkans, Falkenhayn wants to relieve the western front. For Serbia, Bulgaria's declaration of war resulted in a two-front war: from the north Austria - from the east Bulgaria. The downfall of Serbia opened the Berlin-Baghdad land connection for the central powers.centralOct 5, 1915Declaration of war on Serbia: Germany promises Macedonia as a price  Romania

Serbia

Romania

 EntenteAug. 27, 1916 - December 6, 1916 (surrender)  Romania

Japan

  • 1904-1905: The Russo-Japanese War as a messenger for the trench warfare on the Western Front.
Entente23 Aug 1914  Intervention in Russia

 

country

formative prehistory

Alliance side

entry into the war

(promised spoils of war)

Politician

Military

Fronts and Trp contingents

United States

  • Fought for their independence from England between 1775 and 1783, the USA experienced through the acquisition of land from France (1803: Louisiana), Spain (1819: Florida) and Russia (1867: Alaska) as well as through conquests vs. Mexico in the course of the Monroe Doctrine [Die The new world is an American area of ​​interest and reserved for the Americans: European colonization resp. Interference is excluded.] (1836: Texas, 1846: New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah and parts of Colorado) and annexation of Indian territories to their full continental size.
  • In a bloody civil war (Civil War: 1861-1865) the schism between the industrialized north and the agrarian south, which had intensified since the revolution, was resolved by force.
  • Newly united, in the light of the Monroe Doctrine and influenced by Mahan's writings, the USA set out to establish itself as an island power imperialistically outside the continent:

1898: Spanish-American War (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines are owned by the United States). The American occupying forces left Cuba in 1902, but Cuba (reoccupation 1906-1909) and the Dominican Republic remained the protectorate of the United States.

1903: USA supports revolution in Panama (de facto protectorate of the USA) against the Colombian government. (Panama Canal: connecting route between the Atlantic [west coast] and the Pacific [east coast], which was only able to bring out the full advantage of the Inner Line by avoiding the circumnavigation of South America.)

1912: Honduras Protectorate of the USA

1916/17: Mexican-American border war: Under the Kdo of Pershing, the USA invaded northern Mexico to get hold of Pancho Villa.

Occupation of the Dominican Republic (until 1924).

  • President Wilson, re-elected for another term in 1917, establishes his idealistic 14-pt program for peace. This program was rejected by Germany on the grounds of American double standards. As the Carpenter affair(Attempt to incite Germany's Mexico to a war against the USA) in the USA, the public opinion, which had already been influenced by the submarine war and the reported German war crimes in Belgium, changed from a negative one regarding an intervention by the USA in Europe to a favorable majority.
EntenteApr 6, 1917

Wilson

Pershing

Western front

Intervention in Russia

2. Operation plans

Schlieffen plan

Plan XVII

As the successor to Moltke the Elder, Schlieffen (from 1891) reversed his operational plan in the event of a European war. Moltke wanted to take the defensive against France in the west in order to be able to strike offensively against Russia in the east.

The Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese War changed the European balance of power, so that Schlieffen only intended to counter the Russians with 10 Div (+). In contrast, he wanted to shift the focus to the West, convinced that Russia would need at least 6 weeks to complete their mobilization and combat preparations. Firmly in the opinion that at this time France would be defeated in order to then be able to shift the heavyweight to the east (principle of the inner line [Jomini]) Slept his Operation plan after this Model of the battle of Leuthen (Frederick the Great, 7 Years War, December 5, 1757 vs. Austria) of the following masses:

The advance is to be presented in a crooked order of battle near Metz as a pivot. The left wing(Armies 6 & 7 south of Metz) is supposed to be in one for the defensive favorable terrain (Vosges; see Hartmannsweilerkopf) first seek contact with the bulk of the French army in order to bind the French forces or, if this is not possible, to withdraw and thus lure the French forces towards the Rhine.

At the same time the right wing(Armies 1-5 north of Metz) through Belgium, swings southwest around Paris, and then pushes on to the east with the aim of stabbing the French main forces in the back and bringing them to Switzerland resp. To push to Germany. The right wing is supposed to do that for them offensive Use favorable terrain and, above all, be strong enough to besiege the fortresses (Antwerp, Namur, Liège, Paris).

1906 Moltke became the younger successor of Schlieffen and adapted his operation plan to the following measures:

Moltke took over the operation plans of his predecessor, but changed them fundamentally. This is how Moltke wanted to make a Cannae out of a Leuthen, i.e. a double enclosure from one enclosure:

  • Eastern front according to Schlieffen;
  • on the western front, Moltke changed the balance of power in favor of the left Wing.

Conclusion:
A defensive left wing became a second offensive wing, which had to operate in a favorable area for the Vtg. Due to this Trp disposition, it is likely that the French forces will be pushed back towards their rear rather than a feint and their encirclement: this represented neither a Leuthen nor a Cannae.

Designed in 1911 General Michel an operational plan based on 2 assumptions in the event of a war with Germany:

1. Germany will mobilize its reservists at the same time as they leave;

2. Germany's main thrust will go through Belgium.

Consequently, Michel proposes a list that should prevent the advance through Belgium by also mobilizing all reservists simultaneously with the departure and placing a heavyweight on the Belgian border:

General Michel, however, was intrigued and replaced by Joffre. This also put Michel's plan of operations aside.

Joffre possessed the character traits of a French farmer:

Slim but unimaginative, stubborn, cunning, discreet and pragmatic (between 2.8. And 6.9.14 he relieved 2 Army Kdt, 10 Corps Kdt and 38 Div Kdt (!)).

The Plan XVII based on 2 assumptions:

1. Germany would Not Use reservists mixed with the move at the same time. And therefore a simultaneous advance through Belgium and an advance through Lorraine is not possible.

2. The French soldier is insurmountable in attack. Therefore it is enough to concentrate the Trp between Mézières and Epinal and to march forward to take Alsace-Lorraine:

3. Inventions and weapon developments that revolutionized warfare in the first half of the 20th century

Invention / weapon

Development history

First use in the war

Deployment procedure

wireless telegraphy

Ø The ether as a new battlefield

Based on the basic work by Rudolf Hertz (1887), Marconi succeeded in transmitting a message wirelessly over 9 miles in 1897 and over 3000 miles in 1901.  
railroad Used deliberately for the first time in the Civil War.Allows rapid relocation of troops and supply in large quantities over long distances: rapid formation of heavy weights was given a new dimension.
Explosive projectilesIn 1784 General Henry Shrapnel developed the first explosive projectile containing sub-projectiles. Its splinter effect increased the lethality of the artillery many times over.  
Fire roller Developed in 1916 for the Somme OffensiveContinuous artillery fire that is shot in front of the advancing infantry and moves forward with it.
Flak   
flamethrower   
plane

Ø The sky as a new battlefield

1903 First flight of a motorized aircraft by the Wright brothers (12 'flight).

1909 first canal crossing (in 31 minutes).

In 1914 the Royal Flying Corps was in France with 63 Flz. In the summer of 1918 the newly formed Royal Air Force had 22,000 men!
  • observation(Fire control and reconnaissance)
  • Dogfight(from summer 1915 after Fokker introduced a fixed MG that could shoot synchronized between the propeller)
  • Ground combat(for the first time in the battle of Loos, September 25th-October 15th, 1915 against artillery positions)
  • strategic bombing (first incendiary bombs)
  • care(On July 4th, 1918, airborne Vsg took place for the first time, when a British Flz from Australian MG riflemen dropped 100,000 Sch on the Somme.)

 

Invention / weapon

Development history

First use in the war

Deployment procedure

Hand grenadeExisting models have been improved.  
Breech loader (rifle and artillery)From 1840 breech loading rifle introduced into the Prussian army. The advantage, in addition to the increased fire rate, is the possibility of loading the weapon lying down (easier use of the terrain for cover).

1870 Alfred Krupp's rear loader gun introduced into the Prussian army. Hydraulic brakes allowed a rate of fire of up to 12 sh / min., Since the gun is not crazy after the shot and is ready to fire again without reference to the position again. (French 75s)

  
Hydrophone and depth chargesDeveloped by the British as a countermeasure against the German submarines during World War I.1917 
Combat gas (chlorine, phosgene and yperite [mustard gas]) and protective mask5 future Nobel Prize winners were involved in the development of the chemical warfare agents:

Hahn, Hertz, Franck, Haber and Nernst

April 22, 1915 (2nd battle near Ypres)First use took place through outflowing gas cylinders. However, this method had disadvantages:

Special trenches that reached deep into no man's land had to be dug for favorable use. In addition, a favorable wind had to be waited for, which made coordination with an AG extremely difficult. This often led to their own south being exposed to their own warfare agent. That is why an artillery shell was later developed for the use of chemical weapons.

 

Invention / weapon

Development history

First use in the war

Deployment procedure

Machine gunThe Gatling MG was used for the first time in the American Civil War.

The French Mitrailleuse was tested in 1860 and went into production in 1866: During the Franco-Prussian War, the French. Army approx. 200 mitrailleuses, which, however, were grouped together as Bttr and artillery and thus made an easy target for the Prussian artillery.

  
MortarDeveloped in the course of the Trench Warfare in World War I.First use in 1915.This bow weapon of the upper angle group allows effective fire to be laid in the trenches.
tankThe 'tank idea' came from the 1878 article by Colonel Brackenbury about field artillery of the 19th century:

In it he describes how the field artillery is to be protected from the increased firepower of the infantry and from Shrapnel by attaching iron plates. He goes on to say that the aim of the battle is to overcome the opposing morale, with advancement meaning conquering, since continuous advancement has an overwhelming psychological effect.

9/15/1916 in use for the first time on the SommePz had their run-off line around 1 km behind Inf, but advanced in H - (..) in order to advance in troops of 3 as mobile artillery battles in front of the infantry.
Tire1888 by Dunlop  
Crawler tractor1888 by Batter  

 

Invention / weapon

Development history

First use in the war

Deployment procedure

Sea minesIn 1843, Samuel Colt developed a mine with an electric detonator. This sea mine was used in large numbers in the Civil War.  
Self loaderHenry and Spencer self-loading rifle was introduced during the Civil War (1861-1865): further increase in fire rate.  
torpedoIn 1864 an Austrian named Lupius developed the self-propelled torpedo. His work served as the basis for the further development of the torpedo by Robert Whitehead.  
SubmarineDavid Bushnell developed the first submarine in the War of Independence (1775-1783) with the aim of sinking the English fleet at anchor in the ports with cargoes with time fuses.  
Internal combustion engine1876 ​​Dr. Otto; 1885 improvements by Daimler  
Parachute June 27th, 1918 a (German) pilot saved himself for the first time by successfully parachuting 

 

4. Butcher

Name (date)

front

purpose

course

1914: Marne (5.9.-11.9.)

Western front

Attack the exposed flank of the 1st German Army (von Kluck) in order to interrupt their overstretched line of communication.German advance through Belgium.

Hardly pressed on all fronts, Joffre gives on August 25th. the applicant to retreat to the starting line at the outbreak of war.

On August 29 the western enclosure of Paris was broken off by the 1st German Army (von Kluck) to support the 2nd Army (von Bülow) on the Aisne, in the opinion that the retreating French. To encircle the army east of Paris.

Recognizing this maneuver, Joffre ordered his newly formed 6th Army (Maunoury) to Paris to attack from Kluck from the west (reinforced by the first motorized Trp Vs from parts of the Paris garrison with the help of 1,200 taxis).

The real 'miracle on the Marne' is the fact that on 6.9. the BEF under the Kdo of John French with its 3 corps (Pulteney, Haig, Smith-Dorrien) pushed into the gap between the 1st German and 2nd German Army, which resulted in a German retreat, in the opinion to be threatened by encirclement:

On 9.9. received the order to withdraw from Kluck against his will. Because if the German General Staff had kept Sangfroid, the hard-pressed 6th French would probably have been. Army (Maunoury) would have to withdraw further and the BEF would have got into a precarious situation between the 1st and 2nd German Army.

Realizing that frontal attacks are too costly, both armies tried to circumvent each other: what followed went down in history as the race to the sea.

Result:

A continuous rigid front from the Swiss border to the North Sea.

'Falkenhayn changes the conception and for 1915 goes over to the offensive in the east, defensive on the frozen western front. to be able to use a separate peace with the Russians of all means against the French.

1914: Tannenberg (26.8.-30.8.)

Eastern Front

Vtg East PrussiaPrittwitz, besieged by Rennenkampf, wants to fall back on a Vtg line, whereupon Prittwitz is replaced by Hindenburg (23.8.).

Seeing the gap between Rennenkampf and Samsonov, Hindenburg decides to protect the north only with a cavalry veil, which distracts him from the race, and to strike heavily in the south against Samsonov (whose exact Trp disposition could be found out by intercepting an unencrypted radio message!), to then turn his heavyweight against race fight. Hindenburg used rail transport to shift the focus.

 

Name (date)

front

purpose

course

1915: Dardanelles (25.3.-10.1.1916)

Gallipoli

Occupation of ConstantinopleThe idea of ​​an operation in the Dardanelles originated with the Greek government, which on August 20, 1914 was ready to provide all military resources to the Entente. But GB turned down this opportunity so as not to snub Turkey (which had not yet entered the war).

Strait Operation Advocate: First Lord of the Admirality (Churchill)

Opponent of this operation: First Sea Lord (Lord Fisher: proponent of a landing in the Baltic States).

As a strategic concept ingenious (Turkey from the war: Straits reopened ð Russian Black Sea Fleet can be used again against Germany, Austria threatened via the Danube) GB lacked the necessary means to carry out this operation successfully (target-means-use). Because the British ground troops necessary for the operation were tied to the western front (Kitchener's army not yet ready for action) and Greece refused to provide Trp until Bulgaria promised to declare war on Turkey.

In addition, an isolated bombardment of the forts near the Dardanelles on November 3rd, 1914 warns the Turks, who then pushed ahead with their Vtg work. But the actual fatal blow of the operation was mainly due to tactical advance actions (shelling of the forts on February 19, 2015 and February 25, 2015, attack on a Kdo Gr and destruction of the guns near Sedd-el-Bahr on February 26, 2015 and the occupation of the island of Lemnos by marines [Violation of Greek neutrality by the Entente Powers if it is in their interests!]) and the unsuccessful attempt to break through the mined strait only by the Navy on March 18th, 2015, which gambled away any prospect of surprise: The alarmed Turks reinforced the peninsula, which was only occupied by 1 div, by April 4, 2015 with additional 4 divisions!

On March 25th The landings were carried out on a total of 6 beaches (5 around the southern tip of the peninsula, 1 north of Gaba Tebe) with the aim of using the forces that landed in the north to stab the Turkish resistance that could emerge in the south and advance towards the Maidos.With the exception of one beach (V), there was hardly any resistance to the landings in the south. However, a lack of leadership and determination left the push in the right direction Maidos stop at the slightest resistance (Ggag by Mustafa Kemal, Div Kdt) and the Trp then dug itself in: the result was a strategic stalemate as on the western front.

The only success was the lossless withdrawal from the Peninsula, which was completed on 10.1.16.

1915: Sari Bair

Gallipoli

2. Landing operation 

 

Name (date)

front

purpose

course

1915: Sulva Bay (6.8.)

Gallipoli

to reinforce and encompass the Turkish Vtg 
1915: 1st Champagne (20.12.14-17.3.15)

Western front

The large German Vtg line protruding to the west  
1915: Soissons (8.1.-14.1.)

Western front

by coordinating British Ag from the Artois 
1915: Neuve-Chapelle (10.3.-13-3-)

Western front

eastward and franz. Ag from the Champagne northwards to St Quentin split off

 
1915: Festubert (15.5.-25.5.)

Western front

 
1915: 2. Artois (9.5.-18.6.)

Western front

 
1915: Loos (25.9.-15.10.)

Western front

 
1915: 2nd Champagne (25.9.-5.11.)

Western front

 

 

 

Situation at the end of 1915

The French. The procedure envisaged actions on all fronts for 1916 so that the central powers, especially Germany, could not take advantage of the Inner Line.
On the rigid western front, which led from the canal to the Adriatic, there was only one unpaved gap: Switzerland ... (Plan H: operational goals: Bern; Vni black Army and crossings of the Rhine). But a violation of Swiss neutrality by a French Advance through the Ajoix (minimum solution) or through the Mittelland (maximum solution) for bypassing the German left flank was avoided in order not to tie up even more of their own already strained funds to another theater of war. Because a German intervention and advance into Switzerland would have been foreseeable, which ultimately led to a stop of the French. The advance at the height between Olten and Gotthard would lead to an extension of the front of around 300km. Plan H was dropped in favor of an offensive action coordinated with the British on the Somme.
'West' responded to this threat scenario (indirect threat) Theophil spokesman for Bernegg (sw. Chief of Staff) and Ulrich Wille (Commander-in-Chief CH) combined with the assumption that Italy, as a free rider, will also use the opportunity to maneuver Österrecih via Switzerland (threat 'South'), with a concentration of troops in the Jura with fortifications on the Ziehl Canal including artillery on the Jolimont and with a concentration of troops around the fortifications of St. Maurice-Simplon; Bellinzona and Sarganz. (Idea: two-stage model (a) border area defense (b) Alpine area as the basis for securing the Vsg with Vtg lines in the Central Plateau.

Conclusion: Armed neutrality was in the interests of the warring parties.

 

Name (date)

front

purpose

course

1916: Brusilov offensive (5.6.-17.8.)

Eastern Front

Russian offensive in coordination with France and Great Britain. 
1916: Verdun (21.2.-18.12.)

Western front

Bleeding the enemyGerman offensive
1916: Somme (1.7.-13.11.)

Western front

Relief from VerdunAllied offensive
1916: Easter Rising (April 24-29)

Dublin

Irish uprising against British rule.Irish militias tried to break away from mainland Britain with armed violence.

The uprising was fueled by German support (arms deliveries, political relations), but suppressed with the use of British Trp.

15 leaders of the uprising were later executed, including Roger Casement for high treason (he tried to secure support for the uprising).

1917: Spring Revolution (8.3.-15.3.)

Eastern Front

-Riots break out in Petrograd. Trp refuse to open fire on the protesters, kill their officers and join the mob.

The Winter Palace is stormed, public buildings burned down and prisoners released.

On March 15, 2017, Niklaus II abdicated.

3 days later on 3/18/17. a provisional government is set up by Prince Lvov.

1917: Arras (9.4.-15.5.)

Western front

  
1917: Aisne (April 16-20)

Western front

  
1917: Messines (May 21-June 14)

Western front

  
1917: 3rd Ypres (July 31st - November 20th)   
1917: Caporetto (October 24th-November 4th)

Italy

  
1917: Cambrai (November 20th-December 5th)

Western front

 Double the surprise:

The allied offensive was made without an artillery bombardment was initiated and, for the first time, tanks were used en masse.

The initial success could not be exploited due to insufficient reserves: tactical failure.

 

Name (date)

front

purpose

course

1917: October Revolution (November 7th)

Eastern Front

-Lenin and Trosky take power in Petrograd. A month later, when a ceasefire between Germany and Russia came into force, the tsarist empire begins to disintegrate. (Separate peace (2) of Brest-Litowsk: 3.3.18).

On December 17, 1917, a Bolshevik shadow government proclaimed it a Soviet republic in Ukraine and asks the Soviet government for help: This is how the war of liberation in Ukraine, which was to last until 1921, broke out.

General Alexeyev set up a volunteer army (White Army) in southern Russia to fight against Bolshevism.

At the end of 1918 there were around 30,000 intervention troops (from France, Great Britain, USA, Italy, Japan, German Baltic States, Poland, Greece, Finland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Estonia and Latvia) on Russian soil in Archangel, Murmansk, Finland, Estonia and Latvia , Poland, Black Sea and Vladivostok.

 

Situation at the end of 1917

Russia thrown out of the war by the separate peace of Brest-Litovsk (March 3rd, 2018), Germany decides to throw all freed forces (70 Div) on the western front in an offensive against the Entente before the material and personal strength of the USA (at war since April 6, 1917) can be effective in favor of the Entente. Because the sea blockade took its toll on the German civilian population and could only be broken by an offensive.

In order to separate the English army from the French, the front north and south of Péronne was to be broken through by the 3rd and 4th British Armies and pushed to the north.

Not the offensive resp. The strategy of wanting to separate allies in order to be able to defeat them separately is the mistake of the German high command, but the fact that the Germans chose the stronger alliance partner (GB) as a point of attack instead of the weaker one (France).

Pershing's insistence that the US Army should only be deployed as an individually operating army under his Kdo after adequate deployment-related training and materially fully equipped, long delayed its deployment in favor of the Entente. However, at the insistence of the allies, who were strongly harassed by the German offensive in the spring of 1918, US Trp were assigned to the British, French and Italian Trp. The dream of an army of his own vanished for Pershing.

 

Name (date)

front

purpose

course

1918: Kaiserschlacht (21.3.-5.4.)

Western front

 German offensive
1918: Lys (9.4.-30.4.)

Western front

 1st British Army
1918: Chemin de Dames (May 27th-June 14th)

Western front

 German offensive
1918: Reims (6.7.)

Western front

 German offensive

 

Name (date)

front

purpose

course

1918: Amiens (August 8th-October 5th, 2018)

Western front

  1. Relief of Amiens and the Amiens-Paris rail link as well
  2. Push back Gn Rtg Roye.
The Battle of Amiens is called that excellent key battle to be considered in World War 1. Because they

1. led to the German surrender (11/11/1918);

2. broke through the stalemate on the western front that had existed since the end of 1914 and

3. ushered in a tactical revolution.

camouflage(Streets were covered with sand and straw to reduce noise; Vs only at night, no shooting in; continuation of the usual everyday work) and confidentiality (Formal Bf were only distributed 24-36 hours before Ag; gn Flugwaffe was held out of the operating room by its own LW: air superiority) ensured a surprise: between 29.7. and 8.8.18 14 Inf Div, 3 Kav Div, 3 Pz Br with a total of 580 Pzfz and 2000 guns are concentrated east of Amiens. The Ag should be supported by 1,900 Entente Flz.

Conclusion:

  • Inf without suitable Pzaw-Wf are demoralized and put to flight by Pz.
  • Cavalry is unsuitable for advancing with Pz. Because it is neither bulletproof and equally fast.
  • Follow-up operations must be carefully worked out, especially in the logistics area (Vsg, Rep) for Pz so that an offensive does not peter out.

Reasons for the German surrender:

1. Sea blockade: without wheat imports from Romania and the Ukraine, Germany would have long been starved into peace.

2. Realization that the spring offensive was carried out in vain and that suitable means were lacking for a separate offensive that could end the war in his favor.

November Revolution in Germany and the birth of the stabbing legend:

After his assessment of the situation, Ludendorff calls for peace to be found through diplomatic channels. This was the only way to save the army from annihilation and thus Germany from revolution. But President Wilson was reluctant to negotiate with Wilhelm II, which led to the removal of him and the establishment of a parliamentary government in Germany.

But when the fleet was ordered to set sail in order to protect itself from captivity in battle, the sailors mutinied. This revolutionary spark jumped over to the whole German nation. This is where the stabbing legend finds its seeds: Germany lost the war because of the socialist revolution, not because of the military one.

1915-1917: Isonzo (11)

Italy

  

 

5. War victims

9 million Sdt

5 million civilians due to occupation, bombing, starvation or disease.

6-7 million Armenians (genocide by the Turks)

¾ million German civilians through the Allied naval blockade.

20 million from the 1918 flu epidemic.

40 million deaths in total

6. Conclusion

ŒTactical results dictated the operational decisions:

The Battle of the Marne on September 8, 1914 was a strategic turning point, which was initiated by Moltke's adjustments to the Schlieffen Plan and by Wilhelm II's aggressive policy before and at the beginning of the war:

  • As planned, Prince Ruprecht's 6th Army fell back on August 14, 1914. But on August 20, the 6th Army started at the request of its chiefs of staff Colonel von Dellmensingen with the 7th Army a counterattack, which the 1st and 2nd French. Army pushed out of the prepared trap by pushing them back. In addition, the German 6th and 7th Army spent between August 25th. and 7.9. in the Vosges, in the area before the Schlieffen advised against an offensive.
  • On August 18 the armies 1-3 offensive was launched. The Belgian Trp quickly fell back on Antwerp, whereupon the 1st Army (von Kluck) was ordered to detach the 3rd Reserve Corps (35,000 Sdt) to cover them.
  • When Namur was reached, the 2nd Army (von Bülow) and the 3rd Army (von Hausen) were forced to cede troop contingents in favor of the 1st Army.
  • When on 8/21 the 2nd Army (von Bülow) to the 5th French Army (Lanrézac), the 1st German Army (von Kluck) was ordered, in deviation from the original plan, to advance further in the south-west. If the 1st Army (von Kluck) had advanced further west as planned, a head-on collision with the British Expeditionary Corps (BEF) near Mons could have been avoided or respectively. the BEF can be outmaneuvered and likely destroyed.
  • Believing that he had already decisively defeated the French in the west, concerned about the course of events on the Eastern Front (East Prussia), the Chief Operations Officer, Colonel Tappen, requested that Trp be withdrawn from the Western Front immediately and sent to the Eastern Front as reinforcement. Army (von Bülow) had 1 corps, the 3rd Army (von Hausen) 1 corps and 1 Kav Div, which Ludendorff asked not to receive because they would arrive too late for the battle of Tannenberg.
    This resulted in a further weakening of the right wing, which shrank from its original strength of 34 divs to 25 divs. If one counts the losses resulting from the battles, the right wing was trimmed to 1/3 of its original thickness.

Wrong assessment of the situation by the Germans:

ŽWrong assessment of the situation by the Austrians:

How is the stalemate of a trench war overcome ?:

1. more artilleryto shoot barges and trenches together in the preparation fire.
This approach failed due to the fact that the extensive preparatory fire, if it was initially successful, plowed up the bombarded area completely due to its destructive power and thus made an attack into the depths impossible because the supply got stuck in the mud. In addition, the crater landscape offered excellent natural cover, which supported the defensive effect of the Mg. Furthermore, local gains in terrain were only bulges in the front lines, which represented tactically unfavorable starting conditions.

2. Use of chemical weapons

The success at the beginning was very quickly neutralized by suitable countermeasures (protective masks).

3. Bombardment of civil targets (strategic bombing)

Although this approach pointed to a bleak future (World War II), it turned out to be a minor matter in World War I, as the Air Force was still too underdeveloped to achieve decisive results.

4. Development of the tank: Combat of allied arms

Only the concept of the tank including the development of the suitable deployment concept for neutralizing the bullet and shrapnel turned out to be the tactically successful recipe.

The secret to being able to maintain the momentum of an attack lies in the incessant forward movement. Because you have to attack the defeated front formations so quickly and pursue them that the reserve troops do not find time to reinforce them. So the fleeing troops fall back on the still standing, which is the surest way that the still intact troops fall apart.

Warfare changed fundamentally during World War I:

The warfare mutated from an artillery and infantry war to a coordinated action on land (Art, Inf, Pz) and in the air (attaining air supremacy). A new tactic emerged from the development of the tank, which emerged as the child of trench warfare. The infantry no longer fought in isolation if the preparatory fire failed, but received battlefield support from Pz and Flz. However, it has already been recognized that Pz only develop their greatest psychological effect when they are freed from foot troops and separately and separately and can fully exploit their mobility by breaking through the front line and advancing towards the rear of the enemy.

5. Indirect approach

Opening up new fronts (Gallipoli).

Indirect strategy:

  • Peoples striving for self-determination were spurred on by ideological means to revolt against the mother power (14 pt program by Wilson).
    • Revolutionaries were granted safe conduct through their own territory (Lenin through Germany).
    • Revolts through arms deliveries, respectively. Promises of such triggered (Ireland, Mexico)
    • Prospects for territorial gains from war

7. War doctrines

Germany

France

Blitzkrieg doctrine