Who is the next emperor after Aurangzeb

India is a country whose history goes back thousands of years. Many different peoples and ethnic groups lived and still live in the country, in which different religions coexist ................

Mughals in India - Shahjahan


When Jahangir died in late 1627, his eldest son Khurram was in the Deccan. This gave his younger brother Shahryar the chance to be proclaimed emperor. He was supported and driven by Nurjahan, whose daughter he was married to from his first marriage. But Shahryar had neither character nor hardness to successfully get through such an adventure. Khurram, supported by his father-in-law Asaf Khan, cracked down on all male relatives and murdered them. A few months after his father's death, he was in control of the situation and was crowned Shah Jahan (ruler of the world). During his reign, the policies of his predecessors continued. Despite numerous wars, he did not succeed in almost integrating the Dekkan (in southern India) into imperial possession. It failed not only because of the resistance of the Muslim princes there, but also because of the Marathas, who, as a Hindu people, resisted the tutelage of Delhi.

The battles in the Deccan were fought with extreme severity. Up to the systematic devastation of entire stretches of land, with the peasants partly slain and partly sold into slavery. Where one could not get through militarily, one tried to weaken the economic power of the enemy. This way of fighting was in contradiction to the old Hindu rules of war, according to which the peasants, as non-combatants, were not to be touched. The age of nationalism cast its first shadow, the common people were drawn into the political process. The campaigns in the Deccan were long under the command of Aurangzeb, the most gifted of the sons of Shah Jahan. The emperor, meanwhile, displayed the splendor of his court in Agra. His first great work was the peacock throne, the cost of which corresponded to the tax revenue of a large province. This throne was captured by the Persian king Nadir Shah in 1740 and is still in Tehran today.

The next great work of Shah ahan to attract attention was the mausoleum for his wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Contrary to the custom of the emperors to have many wives, Shah Jahan lived monogamous until Mumtaz Mahal, who had given birth to him 14 children, died in childbirth in 1631.

The mausoleum, known under the name Taj mahal (crown of buildings) is in Agra, it is the most important evidence of Islamic architecture in India. Up to 20,000 people were simultaneously employed on the construction from 1631 to 1653, and the costs caused the state finances to falter. In order to measure what this means, one must bear in mind that the Mughal Empire was probably the largest and most financially strong empire on earth in its time.

The money for such an absolutely extravagant court had to be collected by force. Bernier, a contemporary French traveler, writes about the ruthless arbitrariness of the provincial governors and their subordinate organs. Their tyranny was often so excessive that the peasants and artisans were robbed of the bare necessities and died in misery and exhaustion.

To escape the oppression and the agony of starvation, the farmers drove out of their misery to various neighboring countries in the hope of better treatment. Others drove into the army, where they became servants of the soldiers. Since the soil is seldom tilled, unless under duress, and since no one was willing to maintain the trenches and water channels, the whole land was poorly tilled and largely unproductive due to lack of water. The country was ruined by the need to raise the enormous sums of money required to maintain the splendor of the many courts and to pay the army that was needed to keep the people oppressed. These people can be labored for the benefit of others, and if they have been driven to despair by all kinds of cruel treatment, it is the army that prevents their insurrection or their escape. "

When it became known in 1657 that Shahjahan was seriously ill, the four of his sons, who were speculating on the throne, were in the provinces assigned to them for administration. Dara Shikoh was in Punjab, Shuja in Bengal, Aurangzeb in the Deccan and Murad Bakhsh in Gujarat. All four had the income of their provinces and well-equipped armies, which they now used in the struggle of all against all to win the throne. Dara Shikoh, who resembled Akbar in character and inclination, did not have the necessary consequence for this fight. His battles turned out unfortunate until he was finally hounded through all of India and perished miserably. His widespread religious interest among the Muslim leaders had made him many enemies; he had been resented for having had the Upanishads translated into Persian. Shuja, the second oldest, lacked determination. Murad Bakhsh was a man of great personal bravery, but not intelligent enough to see through the network of intrigues with which Aurangzeb, the cool superior calculator, won the game. He imprisoned his father in the imperial castle of Agra until he died of old age in the face of the Taj Mahal.

Shahjahan was buried next to Mumtaj Mahal in Taj Mahal.