What are the causes of cholecystitis


Cholecystitis occurs in the majority of cases as a complication of cholecystolithiasis (gallstone disease). The stone closes the cystic duct (gallbladder duct). In up to 85% of cases of cholecystitis, bacteria are found in the gallbladder. The most common pathogens include Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis (enterococci), Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Clostridium perfringens. Other causes of cholecystitis are bacterial inflammatory colonization of the gallbladder in the following ways: ascending (ascending), descending (descending), hematogenic (on the bloodstream) and lymphogenic (on the lymphatic route).

Acalculous cholecystitis is when acute cholecystitis is present without stones.

A special form of cholecystitis is found in permanent excretors of Salmonella.

There is also the possibility of chemical inflammation caused by the release of various enzymes or mechanical inflammation due to increased pressure in the gallbladder (= abacterial cholecystitis).


Etiology (causes)

Biographical causes

  • Genetic strain through parents, grandparents
  • Hormonal factors

Behavioral causes

  • Hyperalimentation (overeating)
  • Obesity (BMI ≥ 25; obesity)

Disease-related causes

  • Actinomycosis - chronic infectious disease caused by a fungus
  • Bacterial colonization of the gallbladder
  • Cholecystolithiasis (Gallstone disease); 95% of acute cholecystitis result from cholecystolithiasis
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Gallbladder cancer (gallbladder cancer)
  • Gallbladder torsion - twisting of the gallbladder
  • Coronary artery disease (CHD) - atherosclerosis (arteriosclerosis, hardening of the arteries) of the coronary vessels
  • Parasitic involvement of the gallbladder
  • Sarcoid - a systemic inflammatory disease that primarily affects the lymph nodes, lungs and joints
  • Syphilis (syphilis) - sexually transmitted infectious disease
  • Tuberculosis (consumption)
  • Vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels)
  • Condition after major operations
  • Condition after severe trauma (injuries)
  • Condition after burns

Other causes

  • Protracted birth - birth time of more than 18 hours for first-time and more than 12 hours for multiparous women
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