What are typical management information systems
Management Information System (MIS)
See: Management Information System
A management information system (MIS) is a computer-aided information system that supports management decisions. The idea of an MIS, which arose in the 1960s, was discussed intensively in the literature, but found little acceptance in practice. The reasons for this lie in the inadequate organization of the company, which is required for an MIS, in the inadequate training of management in the IT sector and, last but not least, in the complexity of a good MIS. The tasks of an MIS from the user's point of view are:
a) Targeted compression and output of elementary data of the company and the environment Decision preparation through ad hoc initiated planning runs at any compression level Control of the activities resulting from a decision. From the EDP point of view, the following requirements are to be made of an MIS: Up-to-dateness of the data Security and consistency of the data Flexibility of the methods Realism of the models Speed of the evaluations Ease of use and economy. These requirements can largely be met by dividing the MIS into three parts: a database system, a method bank system and a model bank system. It must be ensured that the sub-areas of an MIS are not isolated next to one another, but are intertwined with one another.
Ideal idea of a comprehensive business information system that integratively connects all sub-information systems. The cost and performance accounting is therefore only a sub-system in the MIS alongside information systems on procurement, production, sales, finances, and personnel. The starting point for the development of such integrated systems is the definition of the (possible) information requirement, specified according to content, level of detail, time (speed), frequency and addressees. However, the need for information is constantly changing. Therefore, on the one hand, such systems must be designed as flexibly as possible, on the other hand there is a risk of over- or under-information, that is, of »management misinformation system«. In addition to determining and securing the »objective« information requirement, when designing information systems, attention must also be paid to the motivational component, i.e. the actual willingness of the decision-makers to make adequate use of the information available. The mentioned design problems also apply to the cost and performance accounting subsystem.
(MIS) A term developed in the mid-1960s that stands for the diverse efforts at this time to support management activities with the help of computers by providing information. The MIS were designed as computer-aided information systems, which were primarily aimed at the preparation and linking of mass data with the help of the computer. The focus of the manufacturing process was information, rather than a specific decision. The basis was a broad database. The euphoria in the sixties with regard to a company-wide information system should not last long. The MIS idea failed both because of the inadequate hardware and software capabilities as well as the lack of basic concepts. As early as 1967, Ackhoff described this innovation as a "Miss Information System" and justified it as follows: • There is no lack of information, but an abundance. • An "information need" cannot be determined a priori. • Simply providing information is not enough. • The social aspects of computer use must also be taken into account. It quickly became apparent that, in addition to providing information, it was above all a question of supporting decision-making. In 1971 the term decision support systems (EUS) or the decision support system (DDS) was introduced.
(MIS): A computer-aided information system that has the task of solving management information problems through the use of data processing and corresponding applications.
A uniform definition of the nature, functions and scope of a management information system has so far not been successful. Control information systems, reporting organizations, operations research models, functional subsystems or data management systems are sometimes equated with the term MIS.
From the point of view of application technology, MIS describes a task-specific partial information system of a company, which derives its objectives from the special task structures of the users. The user is - management, whereby it is largely a question of practicability, effort and financial risk, how broad the circle of management should be understood. The support of management through the use of IT methods and systems relates to the following facts:
(1) Provision of information tailored to the recipient.
(2) Automation of structured processes and decisions.
(3) Preparation of complex decision-making situations through simplified information acquisition, use of mathematical-statistical models and methods, simplification of communication.
As computer-aided organization and information systems, MIS design the internal and external information and communication system in such a way that management is provided with the multidimensional information structure required to carry out its tasks. The multi-dimensionality of the information includes: time reference (past, present and future-related information), topicality, timeliness, formal clarity, quantitative and qualitative optimization, consideration of the use of information in relation to the information expenditure, situation-relatedness, organizational integration and security. The following sub-goals of an MIS can be derived from this:
An MIS is used to provide information to the management that is active in planning:
1. It provides the management with the necessary information to determine the long-term business policy and the objectives derived from it.
2. It adapts to the company's existing internal information system.
3. It allows the acquisition, evaluation and assignment of external information.
4. It guarantees an economical organization and administration of various databases for all company areas.
5. It offers the possibility of controlling operational processes by means of comparison and signal information, which are the result of a largely automatic comparison between target information and actual information.
6. It creates the starting point for the creation of functional individual plans and thus the prerequisite for an integrated, company-wide overall plan.
7. It adapts to the organizational structure of the company. II. Communication:
1. It accelerates the flow of information through the possibility of direct access to representative information (reference variables).
2. It achieves a simplification of the operational communication network through central groupings (grouping of several users around a common database).
3. It achieves a relief of the communication network through the construction and operation of secondary storage.
1. It allows the simulation of decision cases with alternative decision parameters by setting up and maintaining method databases.
2. It allows the calculation of time series
and - trends and their most likely course in the future.
3. It enables the calculation of - Correlation coefficients of interdependent series, taking time-lags into account.
4. It creates the prerequisite for short-term disposition analyzes (differential analyzes, problem solutions and deviation analyzes). The starting point for the development of an MIS is the human-machine communication system. In its basic structure, it consists of the elements database, computer and user (manager), whereby the user is provided with specific operational options. The following apply as such:
· Dialogue and query languages: These are methods and procedures for solving data and arithmetic problems in dialogue with the computer. Structured and / or partially structured processes are the main focus of your work.
· Report generators: retrieval of “standardized” reports, user-dependent definition of report forms and content. Possible uses: Covering structured (programmable) information needs.
· Information Retrieval: Search systems to cover spontaneous information needs through the use of problem-indifferent programming languages (so-called query languages).
The technological design framework of the human-machine communication system basically consists of seven system types with a total of four different databases:
A) Characteristics of the MIS-typical databases:
1. Operational database: The operational primary databases form the operative database of an MIS. They are not an integral part of the MIS, but represent an auxiliary function for its use: They are the basis for setting up the reference variable database, for targeted direct queries of individual information and for the signaling system.
2. Management variable database: It represents a complex data management and data organization system that is operated to store, maintain, update, secure and link representative management information. These variables have their origin partly in the operational databases, partly in the data classification system of the external information and have arisen through special compression, selection, evaluation and conversion processes.
3. Method bank: It represents a memory for the administration of predefined programs, algorithms and procedures, which can be used to support decision-making and problem-solving processes through appropriate links. It contains the programs for the decision-making and planning systems.
4. Document database: It represents a data management system that is used for the storage, maintenance, security and retrieval of texts,
Documents, catalogs, reports and monographs.
B) Identifiers of the operational system types of the MIS
1. Direct query system: Use of user-friendly languages (dialog or generator and query languages) to cover spontaneous information needs, to solve user-specific problems and for the targeted search for information from operational databases or from the Leadership variable database.
2. Signal system: The signal system is an active system: The periodic or ongoing comparison between actual data and setpoints leads to the automatic output of the corresponding control information.
3. Reporting systems: Based on the representative data of the reference variable database, special report generators and data link systems are used as part of the operating system, which carry out standardized information processing depending on the reporting structure defined by the user.
4. Decision system: The decision system is a process-oriented system of data processing; It is about the program-controlled execution of - simulation models, forecast calculations, - optimization tasks, operations research models, etc. The result consists of decision templates, alternatives, risk analyzes and statistical evaluations.
5. Information retrieval system: It consists of a dialog system that is used to query documents that are required as orientation information for decision-making and problem-solving processes.
6. Bridge system: The bridge system represents a secondary system in the context of an MIS, the task of which is the connection between the operative database and the reference variable database: Representative reference variables are generated from the abundance of operative data through compression, conversion, extraction and modification Key figures, won.
Data acquisition system for external information: A special classification and data acquisition system is usually required for the preparation and conversion of external information into management information. It takes on the tasks of evaluating, quantifying, selecting and assigning the external information material.
Operational system types, which mainly serve to provide information for dispositive management, have a tendency towards functional decentralization, while decision-oriented system types tend to integrate due to the need for data integration and the method intensity.
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